Ancient Monuments

History on the Ground

This site is entirely user-supported. See how you can help.

Medieval monastic wayside cross base

A Scheduled Monument in Malham Moor, North Yorkshire

Approximate Location Map
Large Map »
Street or Overhead View
Contributor Photos »

If Google Street View is available, the image is from the best available vantage point looking, if possible, towards the location of the monument. Where it is not available, the satellite view is shown instead.

Coordinates

Latitude: 54.0872 / 54°5'14"N

Longitude: -2.1505 / 2°9'1"W

OS Eastings: 390251.41103

OS Northings: 465712.560827

OS Grid: SD902657

Mapcode National: GBR FPF5.6L

Mapcode Global: WHB6L.YJ3J

Entry Name: Medieval monastic wayside cross base

Scheduled Date: 16 September 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1008776

English Heritage Legacy ID: 24471

County: North Yorkshire

Civil Parish: Malham Moor

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): North Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: Kirkby-in-Malhamdale St Michael the Archangel

Church of England Diocese: Leeds

Details

The monument is situated on Malham Moor near Street Gate and includes the
well preserved base of a monastic wayside cross. This gritstone base measures
1.05m by 0.7m with a height of 0.3m. The approximately centrally placed
socket hole has dimensions of 0.31m by 0.2m with a maximum depth of 0.18m. It
is situated on slightly elevated ground and is one of a group adjacent to the
medieval monastic road known as Mastiles Lane. This routeway is associated
with the nearby abbey at Coverham and it is thought to have linked the abbey
with its grange farms in the area.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the
medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to
serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith
amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside
crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and
otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes
linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious
function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners
and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on
pilgrimages.
Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west
England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type
of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively
few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to
remote moorland locations.
Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross,
in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an
unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and
decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces
of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or
incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was
sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear
decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the
`Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both
faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the
North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed
base or show no evidence for a separate base at all.
Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval
religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval
routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth-
fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from
their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

Although the cross at this site has been lost, its base survives in good
condition. It is one of a small group adjacent to Mastiles Lane which continue
to mark a monastic routeway across this area of moorland.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Raistrick, A , Malham, (1947), 13
Other
Dr. A Raistrick, (1962)

Source: Historic England

Other nearby scheduled monuments

AncientMonuments.uk is an independent online resource and is not associated with any government department. All government data published here is used under licence. Please do not contact AncientMonuments.uk for any queries related to any individual ancient or schedued monument, planning permission related to scheduled monuments or the scheduling process itself.

AncientMonuments.uk is a Good Stuff website.