Ancient Monuments

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Defended settlement on Wall Crags

A Scheduled Monument in Wall, Northumberland

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Latitude: 55.0158 / 55°0'56"N

Longitude: -2.1265 / 2°7'35"W

OS Eastings: 392009.657056

OS Northings: 569036.589595

OS Grid: NY920690

Mapcode National: GBR FBLF.FR

Mapcode Global: WHB25.96M4

Entry Name: Defended settlement on Wall Crags

Scheduled Date: 25 May 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1008425

English Heritage Legacy ID: 25041

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Wall

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: St Oswald-in-Lee with Bingfield

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle


The monument includes a defended settlement of Iron Age date occupying the
edge of an escarpment known as Wall Crags. The roughly oval enclosure measures
70m north east to south west by 50m north west to south east within two stone
ramparts on the north east, east and south sides and a single rampart on the
west and north west sides, where steep natural defence is provided by the
escarpment edge. The ramparts are on average 6m broad and 1m high and although
they have been levelled in places, especially on the south and west, their
course can be clearly seen. Where the enclosure is surrounded by double
ramparts they are separated by a space or berm of up to 6m wide. A well
preserved entrance and hollow way, 4m wide, placed centrally through the
north western side of the enclosure gives access to the interior. Immediately
to the right of the entrance, within the interior, there is a small enclosure
7m square, which may be the remains of a small building associated with the
entrance. Within the enclosure there are the remains of at least six circular
houses: one of these situated in a central position is very well defined and
measures 13m in diameter, the others are less well defined and vary in size
from 6m to 13m in diameter. These houses may represent a secondary phase of
occupation of the settlement. The two dry stone walls which cross the
enclosure from north-south and east-west are excluded from the scheduling
although the ground beneath them is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

During the mid-prehistoric period (seventh to fifth centuries BC) a variety of
different types of defensive settlements began to be constructed and occupied
in the northern uplands of England. The most obvious sites were hillforts
built in prominent locations. In addition to these a range of smaller sites,
sometimes with an enclosed area of less than 1ha and defined as defended
settlements, were also constructed. Some of these were located on hilltops,
others are found in less prominent positions. The enclosing defences were of
earthen construction, some sites having a single bank and ditch (univallate),
others having more than one (multivallate). At some sites these earthen
ramparts represent a second phase of defence, the first having been a timber
fence or palisade. Within the enclosure a number of stone or timber-built
round houses were occupied by the inhabitants. Stock may also have been kept
in these houses, especially during the cold winter months, or in enclosed
yards outside them. The communities occupying these sites were probably single
family groups, the defended settlements being used as farmsteads. Construction
and use of this type of site extended over several centuries, possibly through
to the early Romano-British period (mid to late first century AD).
Defended settlements are a rare monument type. They were an important element
of the later prehistoric settlement pattern of the northern uplands and are
important for any study of the developing use of fortified settlements during
this period. All well-preserved examples are believed to be of national

The defended settlement on Wall Crags is reasonably well preserved and retains
significant archaeological deposits. The importance of the monument is
enhanced by its proximity to the large defended settlement on Warden Hill; it
will contribute to any study of the wider settlement pattern at this time.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Challis, A J, Harding, D, 'BAR 20, Part 2' in Later Prehistory from the Trent to the Tyne, (1975), 46
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana' in Hill Forts and Settlements in Northumberland, (1965), 60, 63
NY 96 NW 31,

Source: Historic England

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