Ancient Monuments

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Treslea Cross, 750m ENE of Cardinham Church

A Scheduled Monument in Cardinham, Cornwall

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Latitude: 50.4897 / 50°29'22"N

Longitude: -4.6369 / 4°38'12"W

OS Eastings: 213051.642122

OS Northings: 68860.582159

OS Grid: SX130688

Mapcode National: GBR N6.LGRR

Mapcode Global: FRA 175R.PCX

Entry Name: Treslea Cross, 750m ENE of Cardinham Church

Scheduled Date: 22 March 1932

Last Amended: 3 March 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007755

English Heritage Legacy ID: 24255

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: Cardinham

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Cardynham

Church of England Diocese: Truro


The monument includes a medieval wayside cross, the Treslea Cross, situated at
a junction on an early routeway near Cardinham on southern Bodmin Moor.
The Treslea Cross, which is also grade II* listed building, survives with an
upright granite shaft and a circular 'wheel' head, situated on a triangular
grass verge at the intersection of three roads. The cross head measures 0.44m
high by 0.56m wide and 0.22m thick.
On both of its flat principal faces, a cross motif with flared arms enclosed
by the circular perimeter of the head is formed by four shallow, pecked
hollows radiating from near the centre of the face towards the top left and
right and the bottom left and right. Three small rounded bosses project 0.04m
from the edges of the head, one at each side and one on top. The cross shaft
rises 1.1m from the ground to the base of the head. It is of rectangular
section, tapering from 0.43m wide and 0.18m thick at the base to 0.35m wide
and 0.2m thick at the head. The shaft has edge-chamfers, 0.07m wide, and a
raised midrib, 0.09m wide, extending the length of the shaft on both principal
The Treslea Cross stands at the junction of two roads near Cardinham village;
one road forms an early east-west route skirting the southern edge of Bodmin
Moor from which the other road branches to the north-west. The cross is also
situated on one of several main routes to the parish church in Cardinham
parish. Two other medieval crosses are located in Cardinham churchyard, while
in the same parish, the broadly contemporary Trezance Holy Well is located
800m to the north-west of this monument.
An area 2m wide beyond the cross is included in the scheduling to ensure its
protection. Within this area the modern signpost to the north-west of the
cross is excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Bodmin Moor, the largest of the Cornish granite uplands, has long been
recognised to have exceptional preservation of archaeological remains. The
Moor has been the subject of detailed archaeological survey and is one of the
best recorded upland landscapes in England. The extensive relict landscapes of
prehistoric, medieval and post-medieval date provide direct evidence for human
exploitation of the Moor from the earliest prehistoric period onwards. The
well-preserved and often visible relationship between settlement sites, field
systems, ceremonial and funerary monuments as well as later industrial remains
provides significant insights into successive changes in the pattern of land
use through time. Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross
erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD.
In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the
Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the
traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in
difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly
used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes which might have a more
specifically religious function, including providing access to religious sites
for parishioners and funeral processions. Wayside crosses vary considerably in
form and decoration but several regional types have been identified. The
Cornish wayside crosses form one such group. The commonest type includes a
round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross were
carved. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ.
Less common forms include the `Latin' cross, where the cross-head itself is
shaped as the arms of an unenclosed cross and, much rarer, the simple slab
with a low-relief cross on both faces. Over 400 crosses of all types are
recorded in Cornwall. Of the 35 surviving on Bodmin Moor, 21 are recorded as
wayside crosses. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding
of medieval routeways, settlement patterns and the development of sculptural
traditions. All wayside crosses which survive as earth-fast monuments, except
those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations,
are considered worthy of protection.

The Treslea Cross has survived well, with no record of ever having been moved
from its original location. It presents a good and complete example of a
wheel-head cross, its lack of a visible base being typical of this type of
wayside cross in Cornwall. The formation of the cross motif purely by pecked
hollows between the arms is an uncommon technique and the presence of raised
bosses along the edge of the head is unusual. Its location beside this ancient
routeway demonstrates well some of the roles of wayside crosses in marking
both major cross-country routes and ways within the parish to the church.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1545,
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SX 06/16; Pathfinder Series 1347, Bodmin
Source Date: 1989

Source: Historic England

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