Ancient Monuments

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Scalford settlement near Kirkby Lonsdale

A Scheduled Monument in Hutton Roof, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.2042 / 54°12'15"N

Longitude: -2.6418 / 2°38'30"W

OS Eastings: 358233.986496

OS Northings: 478903.822064

OS Grid: SD582789

Mapcode National: GBR 9MZT.VP

Mapcode Global: WH94N.DL7C

Entry Name: Scalford settlement near Kirkby Lonsdale

Scheduled Date: 30 March 1925

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007194

English Heritage Legacy ID: CU 192

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Hutton Roof

Traditional County: Westmorland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Kirkby Lonsdale Team Ministry

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


Romano-British settlement, 300m ENE of Kilnerfoot.

Source: Historic England


This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 02 March 2016. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.

The monument includes the remains of a settlement enclosure, hut circles and the footings of a rectangular building all of Romano-British date, situated on a west facing slope with higher ground to the north, east and south. The enclosure is sub-oval approximately 60m by 90m and is surrounded by an earth and stone bank. There is an entrance on the south east side where terminals of the surrounding bank are turned inwards. Within the interior are a number of internal partitions in the form of low earth and stone banks associated with several hut circles and the footings of a single rectangular building preserved as earthworks. The hut circles vary in diameter from 4.5m to just over 8m and the rectangular building measures approximately 6.5m by 4.5m. Partial excavation of the site has retrieved pottery dating to the Romano-British period and has also indicated that the encircling bank was originally about 2m thick and is roughly faced with stone on the lower parts of its inner face.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

Romano-British settlement, 300m ENE of Kilnerfoot is well-preserved as an earthwork and partial excavation has revealed the monument to contain archaeological deposits relating to its construction, use and abandonment. The monument is a good example of its type and provides insight into the character of settlement and subsistence during the Romano-British period.

Source: Historic England


PastScape Monument No:- 42999

Source: Historic England

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