Ancient Monuments

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Settlement enclosures, 800m north west of Farhill

A Scheduled Monument in Burgh by Sands, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.9133 / 54°54'47"N

Longitude: -3.1026 / 3°6'9"W

OS Eastings: 329415.13867

OS Northings: 558178.34888

OS Grid: NY294581

Mapcode National: GBR 6CSM.3H

Mapcode Global: WH6YP.9RTR

Entry Name: Settlement enclosures, 800m north west of Farhill

Scheduled Date: 23 April 1979

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007081

English Heritage Legacy ID: CU 496

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Burgh by Sands

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Burgh-by-Sands St Michael

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument includes the remains of a series of Romano-British settlement enclosures situated on low lying level ground. Identified from cropmarks, the monument includes at least three enclosures, two being rectangular and one oval. The eastern rectangular enclosure is the largest and has an entrance on its south west side. Partial excavation of one of the rectangular enclosures provided Romano-British dating evidence.

PastScape Monument No:- 10042
NMR:- NY25NE17
Cumbria HER:- 3379

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.
The settlement enclosures, 800m north west of Farhill are preserved as cropmarks and partial excavation has shown them to contain archaeological deposits relating to their construction, use and abandonment. The monument provides insight into the character of settlement and subsistence during the Romano-British period.

Source: Historic England

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