Ancient Monuments

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Camphill settlement

A Scheduled Monument in Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland

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Latitude: 55.7855 / 55°47'7"N

Longitude: -2.0421 / 2°2'31"W

OS Eastings: 397458.097828

OS Northings: 654689.579834

OS Grid: NT974546

Mapcode National: GBR G15J.PW

Mapcode Global: WH9YB.LVS4

Entry Name: Camphill settlement

Scheduled Date: 30 August 1977

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1003658

English Heritage Legacy ID: ND 592

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Berwick-upon-Tweed

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Berwick Holy Trinity and St Mary

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle


Multivallate defended settlement 200m west of Camphill on Halidon Hill.

Source: Historic England


This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 2 June 2016. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.

The monument includes the remains of a multivallate defended settlement of Iron Age date, situated on a south facing slope just off the ridge forming the eastern flank of Halidon Hill. The monument has been identified as cropmarks on aerial photos. The defended enclosure covers an area of 0.17ha. and is surrounded by three concentric curvilinear ditches with the whole measuring about 143m by 111m. There is a rectilinear annexe on the south west side of the main enclosure. This includes two large infilled pits.

The monument lies partly within the Battle of Halidon Hill Registered Battlefield and is 660m east of a second Iron Age defended settlement that is close to the summit of Halidon Hill and is the subject of a separate scheduling.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

During the mid-prehistoric period (seventh to fifth centuries BC) a variety of different types of defensive settlements began to be constructed and occupied in the northern uplands of England. The most obvious sites were hillforts built in prominent locations. In addition to these a range of smaller sites, sometimes with an enclosed area of less than 1ha and defined as defended settlements, were also constructed. Some of these were located on hilltops, others are found in less prominent positions. The enclosing defences were of earthen construction, some sites having a single bank and ditch (univallate), others having more than one (multivallate). At some sites these earthen ramparts represent a second phase of defence, the first having been a timber fence or palisade. Within the enclosure a number of stone or timber-built round houses were occupied by the inhabitants. Stock may also have been kept in these houses, especially during the cold winter months, or in enclosed yards outside them. The communities occupying these sites were probably single family groups, the defended settlements being used as farmsteads. Construction and use of this type of site extended over several centuries, possibly through to the early Romano-British period (mid to late first century AD). Defended settlements are a rare monument type. They were an important element of the later prehistoric settlement pattern of the northern uplands and are important for any study of the developing use of fortified settlements during this period.

Multivallate defended settlement 200m west of Camphill is preserved as a cropmark with analysis of aerial photographs indicating that archaeological and environmental deposits will be contained with features such as ditches and pits. These deposits will provide insight into the construction, use and abandonment of the monument and the use of the surrounding landscape. The monument provides insight into the character of fortification, settlement and subsistence during the Iron Age. Its value is enhanced by lying in close proximity to a similarly dated defended settlement located 660m to the west.

Source: Historic England


PastScape Monument No:- 4224

Source: Historic England

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