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Cramond, Roman fort & civil settlement

A Scheduled Monument in Almond, City of Edinburgh

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.9771 / 55°58'37"N

Longitude: -3.2973 / 3°17'50"W

OS Eastings: 319138

OS Northings: 676774

OS Grid: NT191767

Mapcode National: GBR 24.WH5R

Mapcode Global: WH6SK.B126

Entry Name: Cramond, Roman fort & civil settlement

Scheduled Date: 11 August 1965

Last Amended: 21 January 1998

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Source ID: SM2526

Schedule Class: Cultural

Category: Roman: fort

Location: Edinburgh

County: City of Edinburgh

Electoral Ward: Almond

Traditional County: Midlothian

Description

The monument comprises a Roman fort and civilian settlement, partly excavated and displayed but predominantly surviving below ground under parkland and woodland. The site has been scheduled for many years, but this rescheduling extends the protected area to cover the full extent of known archaeological remains, taking into account the results of numerous excavations over the past twenty years.

The monument is situated near the mouth of the River Almond, where it meets the Firth of Forth. It comprises a sub-rectangular fort defended by ramparts and ditches enclosing just under 5 acres, and associated civilan settlement. Excavations have shown that the fort was constructed around AD 140, during the Antonine period, with re-occupation later in the Antonine period, and again in the Severan period in the early third century AD. Some civilian re-use of the fort took place in the post-Severan period, up to the fourth century AD. The surviving portion comprises the NE and SE sectors of the fort, much of the remainder being beneath modern housing and roads.

The civilian settlement, situated beyond the N and E ramparts of the fort, has produced indications of industrial as well as domestic activity, including evidence of a leather-working industry. Coins dating to the first century AD suggest some occupation in the Agricolan period, although excavations have so far failed to prove an Agricolan origin for the fort.

The area proposed for scheduling comprises the remains described above and areas around them within which related material may be expected to be found. It is irregular in shape, with maximum overall dimensions of 425m NW-SE by 435m NE-SW, as marked in red on the accompanying map extract. Surfaces and above ground elements of modern walls, field boundaries, paths, roads and car parking areas are excluded from the scheduling, as are all upstanding modern buildings and their immediate environs. In particular, exclusions include Cramond House and Tower, Cramond Church, Manse, Church Hall and burial ground and surrounding land, all as marked in red on the accompanying map extract.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Statement of Scheduling

The relevance of the complex to the Roman occupation of the south and east of Scotland and to military campagins from at least 140s AD to after 212AD, together with its richness, ensure this monuments high national importance.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Sources

Bibliography

RCAHMS record the site as NT17NE 3.0

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

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