Ancient Monuments

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The Knowe, settlement 300m south of Castle O'er Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Annandale East and Eskdale, Dumfries and Galloway

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Latitude: 55.2189 / 55°13'8"N

Longitude: -3.1836 / 3°11'0"W

OS Eastings: 324798

OS Northings: 592269

OS Grid: NY247922

Mapcode National: GBR 6862.KZ

Mapcode Global: WH6X9.228Y

Entry Name: The Knowe, settlement 300m S of Castle O'er Farm

Scheduled Date: 18 February 1986

Last Amended: 14 January 2002

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Source ID: SM4369

Schedule Class: Cultural

Category: Prehistoric domestic and defensive: settlement

Location: Eskdalemuir

County: Dumfries and Galloway

Electoral Ward: Annandale East and Eskdale

Traditional County: Dumfriesshire


The monument comprises the remains of a later prehistoric settlement enclosure. The monument was originally scheduled in 1986 when an area larger than that likely to be of archaeological interest was designated. The current rescheduling rectifies this.

The settlement lies between 210 and 220m OD, on an E facing, steeply sloping site overlooking the valley of the White Esk. The enclosure defining the settlement boundary is roughly oval in shape comprising a massive bank and ditch on the E (upslope) side fading down to a slight scarp on the W (downslope). An outer bank and ditch, again on the E side, can be traced running slightly out of alignment with the other earthworks, and may indicate a different phase of use of the site, and a faint trace of a third outer rampart has also been recorded on the E side. The interior of the enclosure measures a maximum of 45m across and two terraces indicate the likely position of buildings. The entrance is in the NE.

Although the enclosure's earthworks are particularly impressive on their upslope face, they may not have represented a substantial barrier to persistent attack and cannot be considered to be purely defensive. This monument is one of a large number of later prehistoric enclosed settlements concentrated around the upper reaches of the River Esk and its tributaries. The reason for this peculiar concentration of such sites and the relationships between them are not clearly understood at the present time.

The area to be scheduled is irregular in shape, measuring a maximum of 110m NE-SW by 90m NW-SE, as shown in red on the accompanying map.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Statement of Scheduling

The monument is of national importance for its potential to enhance our understanding of prehistoric settlement, economy and social organisation. The relationship between this site and several other substantial settlements in the vicinity of roughly contemporary date is of particular interest.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland



The monument is RCAHMS number NY 29 SW 11.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

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