Ancient Monuments

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Conscientious Objectors’ Stone, 140m south east of Green Moor farmhouse

A Scheduled Monument in Kirkby Ireleth, Cumbria

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Coordinates

Latitude: 54.2957 / 54°17'44"N

Longitude: -3.1439 / 3°8'38"W

OS Eastings: 325647.211309

OS Northings: 489503.957705

OS Grid: SD256895

Mapcode National: GBR 6LHR.4V

Mapcode Global: WH71R.P935

Entry Name: Conscientious Objectors’ Stone, 140m south east of Green Moor farmhouse

Scheduled Date: 14 October 2016

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1439178

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Kirkby Ireleth

Traditional County: Lancashire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Broughton-in-Furness St Mary Magdalene

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle

Summary

A natural rock outcrop which carries a series of inscriptions left by First World War Conscientious Objectors who were on the run from the authorities, avoiding conscription.

Source: Historic England

Details

PRINCIPAL ELEMENT: natural rock outcrop carrying a series of rough inscriptions.

DESCRIPTION: the outcrop is on a NW facing hillside of unenclosed moorland, overlooking a crossing point for Green Moor Beck with Green Moor Farm directly beyond to the north west. The outcrop extends roughly N to S for about 12m, being up to 5m wide, with its bedding plane tilted up to the W to expose a relatively flat, but tilted rock surface mainly facing to the E. Most of the inscriptions are on this E facing surface which is also marked by natural NE-SW striations.

The main inscription is framed by an inscribed rectangle and is sited to the centre of the outcrop on a section facing SE. It reads:
HS WRS
TS. GH. MC
CONs OBJECTORS
RH 1916 A BOOSEY

Around this there are further sets of initials, generally either rougher or more faint:
DC JP (aligned immediately below the main inscription);
NH (aligned to the right);
K (aligned to the left of the main inscription).
AU..
..T
ES (all positioned at an angle and above to the left of the main inscription, the ES being much larger and more carefully inscribed than the other letters).

About 2m south of the main inscription is the clearly inscribed name J Dawson. A further 1m beyond is an irregular group of three sets of initials WRS, GH, HS. About 1m NW of the main inscription there is a much rougher inscription which reads:
AR ME
1926
WR STOCKER

About 1.5m S of the main inscription, on a N-facing flat section of rock that cuts across the bedding plane of the outcrop, there is a further inscription reading:
SS
MS 1922

EXTENT OF SCHEDULING: this is the full extent of the rock outcrop upon which inscriptions have been identified. The scheduled area is drawn as a rectangle 16m by 9m to fully enclose the outcrop and to provide an additional 2m margin for the support and protection of the monument.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The Conscientious Objectors’ Stone 140m SE of Green Moor farmhouse is scheduled for the following principal reasons:

* History: a clear, unambiguous marker that support for the First World War was not universal and that some Conscientious Objectors actively resisted conscription;
* Rarity: the inscribed stone is a very rare, possibly unique physical relic of this important aspect of First World War history;
* Documentation: the inscriptions, by including names and initials, allows actual individuals to be identified, linking in with other surviving documentation, indicating a connection between Green Moor and men who were actively engaged in sedition against the war.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Graham, John W, Conscription and Conscience, (1922)
Pearce, Cyril, Communities of Resistance, (Draft due to be published 2017)
Pearce, Cyril, 'Dissent and conscientious objection' in Appleby, Catrina, Cocroft, Wayne, Schofield, John, Council for British Archaeology,, Council for British Archaeology,, The Home Front in Britain 1914-18: An Archaeological Handbook, (2015)

Source: Historic England

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