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Haresceugh Fell medieval dispersed settlement 100m south west of Busk lime kiln

A Scheduled Monument in Kirkoswald, Cumbria

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Coordinates

Latitude: 54.7768 / 54°46'36"N

Longitude: -2.5729 / 2°34'22"W

OS Eastings: 363248.490083

OS Northings: 542581.559382

OS Grid: NY632425

Mapcode National: GBR BFG6.SF

Mapcode Global: WH91Z.G62C

Entry Name: Haresceugh Fell medieval dispersed settlement 100m south west of Busk lime kiln

Scheduled Date: 24 February 2004

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1021185

English Heritage Legacy ID: 35023

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Kirkoswald

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Kirkoswald St Oswald

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle

Details

The monument includes the upstanding and buried remains of Harescough Fell
medieval dispersed settlement located on a hillside terrace above Loo Gill
100m south west of Busk lime kiln. It includes an irregularly-shaped
stone-walled enclosure which contains the remains of two smaller
stone-walled enclosures, one of which is interpreted as a dwelling while
the other is interpreted as a stock enclosure.

The large enclosure has maximum dimensions of approximately 55m east-west
by 25m north-south. It is formed by a substantial stone wall on all sides
except the south where most of the wall appears to have tumbled down the
steep slope towards Loo Gill. The dwelling and stock enclosure are located
against the north wall of the larger enclosure. The dwelling consists of a
sub-rectangular structure with walls up to 1m high and an entrance at its
north east corner. Adjacent is a sub-rectangular stock enclosure which has
traces of having been sub-divided at its eastern end to form two smaller
enclosures adjacent to the dwelling. There is a possible entrance into one
of these smaller sub-divisions from the west.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Medieval rural settlements in England were marked by great regional diversity
in form, size and type, and the protection of their archaeological remains
needs to take these differences into account. To do this, England has been
divided into three broad Provinces on the basis of each area's distinctive
mixture of nucleated and dispersed settlements. These can be further divided
into sub-Provinces and local regions, possessing characteristics which have
evolved gradually during the past 1500 years or more.
This monument lies in the Northern Pennines sub-Province of the Northern and
Western Province, an area characterised from the Middle Ages by dispersed
settlements, with some nucleations in more favoured areas. The sub-Province is
formed by discontinuous high moorland landscapes; agricultural settlement has
been episodic, in response to the economic fortunes of adjacent sub-Provinces.
Other settlements have been associated with the extraction of stone and other
minerals.

The Alston Block local region encompasses the high moorlands north of
Stainmore. Away from the `specialist nucleations', (the clusters of
dwellings and workshops associated with mining and railways), the
dispersed settlement forms include both seasonal and permanent farmsteads,
as well as specialist sheep and cattle ranches. The latter were normally
outlying dependencies of larger settlements or estate centres located in
adjacent regions. In these upland environs, dating settlements can be
difficult.

In some areas of medieval England settlement was dispersed across the
landscape rather than nucleated into villages. Such dispersed settlement
in an area, usually a township or parish, is defined by the lack of a
single (or principal) nucleated settlement focus such as a village and the
presence instead of small settlement units (small hamlets or farmsteads)
spread across the area. These small settlements normally have a degree of
interconnection with their close neighbours, for example, in relation to
shared common land or road systems. Dispersed settlements varied
enormously from region to region, but where they survive as earthworks
their distinguishing features include roads and other minor tracks,
platforms on which stood houses and other buildings such as barns,
enclosed crofts and small enclosed paddocks. In areas where stone was used
for building, the outlines of building foundations may still be clearly
visible. Communal areas of the settlement frequently include features such
as bakehouses, pinfolds and ponds. Areas of dispersed medieval settlement
are found in both the South Eastern Province and the Northern and Western
Province of England. They are found in upland and also in some lowland
areas. Where found their archaeological remains are one of the most
important sources of understanding about rural life in the five or more
centuries following the Norman Conquest.

Haresceugh Fell medieval dispersed settlement 100m south west of Busk lime
kiln survives well and remains undisturbed by modern development. It is an
excellent example of this class of monument.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
Details in SMR, Cumbria County Council, Harescough Fell,

Source: Historic England

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