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Broughton Castle: fortified house and moat

A Scheduled Monument in Broughton, Oxfordshire

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Latitude: 52.0406 / 52°2'26"N

Longitude: -1.3922 / 1°23'31"W

OS Eastings: 441784.89097

OS Northings: 238196.46897

OS Grid: SP417381

Mapcode National: GBR 7T4.2TD

Mapcode Global: VHBYR.TZC1

Entry Name: Broughton Castle: fortified house and moat

Scheduled Date: 16 July 2003

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020968

English Heritage Legacy ID: 30882

County: Oxfordshire

Civil Parish: Broughton

Traditional County: Oxfordshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Oxfordshire

Church of England Parish: Broughton with North Newington

Church of England Diocese: Oxford


The monument includes the site of a moated and fortified manor house,
largely 14th century with 16th century additions. The site, known as
Broughton Castle, lies in a small valley at the intersection of a west to
east flowing stream and the old Banbury road, approximately 4km south of
Banbury. Broughton Castle is located within a small park which is included
in the Register of Parks and Gardens. The park also contains a large
rabbit warren complex which is the subject of a separate scheduling. The
house was first built in the early 14th century and and it is believed to
have been built for Sir John of Broughton who died in 1315. The original
fortified house included a large hall of traditional plan with the private
apartments at one end and the kitchens and ancillary rooms at the other.
The house is situated on a large island measuring some 120m from east to
west and approximately 134m from north to south. This is enclosed by a
broad moat measuring from approximately 19m wide to over 35m wide at its
greatest, present extent. Stonework in the moat, visible when the water
level is lowered, indicates that it was originally more regular in width
with angled corners (rather than the slightly rounded appearance seen
today) forming an octagonal plan. The moat was originally crossed at two
places, one being the site of the present bridge and gatehouse, located at
roughly the centre of the northern arm, facing the Church of St Mary. The
original gatehouse in this position is believed to have been rebuilt in
the late 14th century, probably by Bishop William of Wykeham who bought
the manor in 1377. The later gatehouse still stands, although partially
rebuilt. It had no portcullis but was provided with a drawbridge which was
later removed when a permanent bridge was built.
The second crossing point was in the south eastern corner of the moat
spanning the eastern arm. This bridge is no longer standing although stone
footings are clearly visible in the side of the moat just below the water
line. Stonework visible in the corner of the island at this point probably
indicates the foundations of some form of gatehouse or postern gate
associated with this entrance.
In the mid-16th century Richard Fiennes, Lord Saye and Sele, extended the
original house to provide a more contemporary and comfortable Elizabethan
mansion. However, much of the earlier house was incorporated into the
remodelling. The range of original buildings, including the kitchen at
the western end, were partially demolished and their foundations lie below
the present structure.
Surrounding the house, to the north and west, were large gardens enclosed
within the boundary created by the moat. These included kitchen and herb
gardens, areas of lawn and courtyards with stables. The original open
court and ancillary buildings lie partially beneath the 16th century
kitchen wing at the eastern end of the house.
Beyond the moat substantial foundations along the outer bank are believed
to represent the remains of external crenellated walls. These may only
have been built on the northern side and along part of the east and west
moat arms in order to enhance the visual appearance and grandeur of the
approach from the north.
Broughton Castle was the centre of many Parliamentarian meetings prior to
and during the English Civil War, and it later suffered a brief siege
although the garrison surrendered before any major damage occurred.
The house, the gatehouse and the stable block, which are all Listed Grade
I, all modern gravel path surfaces, ornamental garden walls and later
features are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath all
these features is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 5 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Fortified houses were residences belonging to some of the richest and most
powerful members of society. Their design reflects a combination of domestic
and military elements. In some instances, the fortifications may be cosmetic
additions to an otherwise conventional high status dwelling, giving a military
aspect while remaining practically indefensible. They are associated with
individuals or families of high status and their ostentatious architecture
often reflects a high level of expenditure. The nature of the fortification
varies, but can include moats, curtain walls, a gatehouse and other towers,
gunports and crenellated parapets.
Their buildings normally included a hall used as communal space for domestic
and administrative purposes, kitchens, service and storage areas. In later
houses the owners had separate private living apartments, these often
receiving particular architectural emphasis. In common with castles, some
fortified houses had outer courts beyond the main defences in which stables,
brew houses, granaries and barns were located.
Fortified houses were constructed in the medieval period, primarily between
the 15th and 16th centuries, although evidence from earlier periods, such as
the increase in the number of licences to crenellate in the reigns of Edward I
and Edward II, indicates that the origins of the class can be traced further
back. They are found primarily in several areas of lowland England: in upland
areas they are outnumbered by structures such as bastles and tower houses
which fulfilled many of the same functions. As a rare monument type, with
fewer than 200 identified examples, all examples exhibiting significant
surviving archaeological remains are considered of national importance.

Broughton Castle is a fine example of a late medieval fortified house,
exhibiting a range of both typical and more unusual alterations and
additions relating to changing fashions and technology. The castle is
well-documented and is known to have played an important role in a number
of historical events including the Parliamentarian intrigues prior to the
English Civil War. Despite having been besieged at this time it suffered
little damage and the structure and grounds have subsequently escaped many
of the modernisations to which similar sites have been subjected. For
these reasons buried archaeological remains of the earlier house as well
as its ancillary buildings and gardens can be expected to survive well.
This evidence will provide insights into the organisation and daily life
of the inhabitants of this site and similar ones which have not survived.
In addition, recent temporary lowering of the water level in the moat has
demonstrated the survival of substantial archaeological remains relating
to the earlier appearance of the monument.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
'Medieval Archaeology' in Broughton Castle, , Vol. 40, (1966), p 277

Source: Historic England

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