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Romano-British farmstead and a length of Roman road 800m south of Winderwath

A Scheduled Monument in Brougham, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.6509 / 54°39'3"N

Longitude: -2.6228 / 2°37'22"W

OS Eastings: 359909.04607

OS Northings: 528598.163772

OS Grid: NY599285

Mapcode National: GBR BG3N.YK

Mapcode Global: WH92J.PC7D

Entry Name: Romano-British farmstead and a length of Roman road 800m south of Winderwath

Scheduled Date: 20 May 2003

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020924

English Heritage Legacy ID: 34995

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Brougham

Traditional County: Westmorland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Cliburn

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument includes the buried remains of a Romano-British farmstead and
an approximately 570m length of Roman road located to the west of the
River Eden 800m south of Winderwath. It is visible as crop marks on an
aerial photograph. These crop marks consist of the dark outline of lusher
vegetation growth covering an infilled ditch which surrounded the
sub-rectangular farmstead, and the light outline of less vigourous
vegetation growth covering the hard surface of the Roman road.

The farmstead is located on elevated ground above the river flood plain.
It measures about 80m by 40m and possesses angular corners at the north
west and south west sides and rounded corners at the north east and south
east sides. No obvious entrances are visible on the aerial photograph,
however, faint traces of a circular feature interpreted as a hut circle
are visible situated within the farmstead against its north eastern
corner. On the northern side of the farmstead are faint traces of two
other linear crop marks joined by a rounded corner which suggest that the
farmstead is of two phases and may have been either enlarged or reduced in
size during its period of occupation. The Roman road runs along lower
ground to the south of the farmstead. At NY59622860, at the point where
the present A66 trunk roads curves to the ESE to begin its approach to
Eden Bridge, the Roman road continues on an eastern alignment for about
520m until, as can be seen on the aerial photograph, it bends sharply to
the south east. From here it proceeds for a distance of about 50m in the
direction of a crossing point of the river which may have lain a short
distance to the north of the modern bridge. The Roman road is thought to
have been built during the AD70s and connected the military establishments
of York and Carlisle. The road's construction formed part of the Roman
military advance northwards from legionary bases at York and Chester up to
the Tyne-Solway gap.

All modern field boundaries are excluded from the scheduling, although the
ground beneath these features is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

Despite its lack of surface features, an aerial photograph clearly shows
that the buried remains of a Romano-British farmstead and an adjacent
length of Roman road 800m south of Winderwath survive well. The farmstead
is one of a number of similar monuments located in and around the Eden
valley and it will facilitate further study of Romano-British settlement
patterns in the area. The Roman road was constructed during the latter
half of the 1st century AD. It was one of the first major Roman military
roads to be built in the north of England and its construction facilitated
the initial conquest and subsequent policing of this part of the province.

Source: Historic England


AP No. 83/600285 N13, Cambridge University Collection, Crop Marks 3 mile NW of Kirkby Thore, Westmorland,
Cambridge University Collection, Crop Marks 3 mile NW of Kirkby Thore, Westmorland,

Source: Historic England

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