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Moated site 700m ENE of Village Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Grafham, Cambridgeshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.309 / 52°18'32"N

Longitude: -0.2878 / 0°17'16"W

OS Eastings: 516824.535211

OS Northings: 269257.140904

OS Grid: TL168692

Mapcode National: GBR H1M.616

Mapcode Global: VHGM0.Y7P7

Entry Name: Moated site 700m ENE of Village Farm

Scheduled Date: 28 January 2003

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020909

English Heritage Legacy ID: 29753

County: Cambridgeshire

Civil Parish: Grafham

Traditional County: Huntingdonshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cambridgeshire

Church of England Parish: Grafham All Saints

Church of England Diocese: Ely

Details

The monument includes a medieval moated site situated approximately 700m
ENE of Village Farm. An area of medieval cultivation earthworks (ridge and
furrow) lying adjacent to the south and west of the moat is also included.
Documentary evidence, supported by fieldwalking finds, indicates that a
small settlement or hamlet formerly existed to the east of the moated
site, being largely abandoned by the 18th century and completely abandoned
in the 19th century. Intensive cultivation over the area of this
settlement has caused significant disturbance to the area and it is not,
therefore, included in the scheduling.

The moated site is roughly rectangular in plan, defined by a fairly narrow
moat and measuring about 140m east to west and between 75m and 100m north
to south. The moat is approximately 1m deep, containing a thick layer of
damp silts and is broken by a single causeway situated towards the eastern
end of the southern arm. The western arm is banked along its inner edge. A
narrow leat (drainage channel) runs westward from the north west corner of
the moat.

Although the island of the moat has been partly disturbed by quarrying,
two building platforms are clearly visible. The most distinct is located
within the south eastern corner. It is about 35m east to west and 20m
north to south, enclosed by a ditch on three sides and by the main moat on
the fourth, eastern, side. The ditch is not linked to the main moat, and
its westerm arm has been widened and deepened, perhaps to form a pond. The
second platform occupies the western part of the island and is defined on
its eastern side by a shallow ditch, partly cut by quarrying.

It is thought that the south eastern platform was the site of the
principal house, the remainder of the moated site being used as a stock
compound with outbuildings such as stores, stables and byres. A map of
about 1750 depicts a house at this south eastern corner and, in the 19th
century, a further building is known to have stood towards the north
eastern corner. The site of this structure has, however, been disturbed
by quarrying.

The area of medieval ridge and furrow adjacent to the south and west of
the moated site represents the only surviving remains of a once
extensive system of cultivation earthworks. The earthworks are aligned
north to south and are undisturbed except for a small, irregular area of
quarrying to the north west. Traces of these earthworks survive in the
south western corner of the moat island, suggesting that they predate the
construction of the moat.

The moated site has been associated with the manorial holding of Eustace
the Sheriff which became known as the Lovetot fee. Eustace held the whole
of the manor of Grafham in 1086, but by 1167 the holding had been divided
between the Earls of Gloucester and Eustace's Lovetot descendants. The
Gloucester portion was centred on the present village of Grafham, and it
seems probable that the moated site represents the focus of the Lovetot
fee.

All fences, fenceposts and feed bins are excluded from the scheduling,
although the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Around 6,000 moated sites are known in England. They consist of wide ditches,
often or seasonally water-filled, partly or completely enclosing one or more
islands of dry ground on which stood domestic or religious buildings. In some
cases the islands were used for horticulture. The majority of moated sites
served as prestigious aristocratic and seigneurial residences with the
provision of a moat intended as a status symbol rather than a practical
military defence. The peak period during which moated sites were built was
between about 1250 and 1350 and by far the greatest concentration lies in
central and eastern parts of England. However, moated sites were built
throughout the medieval period, are widely scattered throughout England and
exhibit a high level of diversity in their forms and sizes. They form a
significant class of medieval monument and are important for the understanding
of the distribution of wealth and status in the countryside. Many examples
provide conditions favourable to the survival of organic remains.

The moated site 700m ENE of Village Farm is, despite some disturbance, a
well-preserved example displaying clear evidence of a sequence of
occupation from the medieval period to the 19th century. The island will
retain archaeological deposits, including structural remains and
artefacts, which will provide valuable information concerning the various
phases of occupation, and the status and lifestyles of the occupants. The
silts of the moat ditches will retain further artefacts together with
organic and environmental remains. These may provide dietary information
and may illustrate the nature of the landscape in which the monument was
set.

Ridge and furrow cultivation, created to provide drainage and equal
division of land, is a distinctive and characteristic feature of the
medieval period. Where earthworks survive they can provide a valuable
insight into the apportionment of land and the agricultural practices of
the time. The survival of an area of ridge and furrow adjacent to the
moated site is a rare example in the region. Its spatial relationship with
the moat provides evidence both of changing land use and of changes in
local social structure.

The moated site lies approximately 1km from a similar monument believed to
be the site of Engaines manor house. A comparison of the two sites would
have significance for the study of medieval settlement patterns and
demography.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Etchells-Butler, S H, Medieval Village Survey, (1979)
Page, W, Proby, G , The Victoria History of the County of Huntingdon, (1936)
Brown, A E, Taylor, C C, 'Proceedings of the Cambs Archaeological Society' in Grafham: Moated site and deserted village, , Vol. 67, (1977)

Source: Historic England

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