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Medieval farmstead 420m east of Buck Rush Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Lockwood, Redcar and Cleveland

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Latitude: 54.5391 / 54°32'20"N

Longitude: -0.9251 / 0°55'30"W

OS Eastings: 469640.566015

OS Northings: 516513.540007

OS Grid: NZ696165

Mapcode National: GBR PHZY.HM

Mapcode Global: WHF8G.R5NL

Entry Name: Medieval farmstead 420m east of Buck Rush Farm

Scheduled Date: 20 December 1977

Last Amended: 20 July 2001

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020322

English Heritage Legacy ID: 34580

County: Redcar and Cleveland

Civil Parish: Lockwood

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): North Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: Brotton Parva St Margaret

Church of England Diocese: York


The monument includes the site of a medieval farmstead 420m east of Buck Rush
Farm. The site of the medieval farmstead is situated to the west of a
steep-sided wooded valley.
The parish of Skelton, of which the township of Kilton was part in the
medieval period, lies on the north east fringe of the North York Moors and
comprises a block of land running from the moorland edge in the south, across
the fertile coastal plain to the coast in the north.
The medieval farmstead survives as a series of earthworks located on a spur of
land with ground sloping to the east, west and south. Located at the top of
the spur is a square enclosure bounded by a low bank, approximately 0.3m high
and 3.5m wide. This bank is most distinct on the north and east sides of the
enclosure, whilst it tends to merge into the slope of the spur on the south
and west sides. On the east side of the enclosure there is an indication of a
slight internal ditch. A number of irregular earthworks within the enclosure
are remnants of buildings associated with the enclosure. The north west of
the enclosure has been destroyed by the later digging of a pond, destroying a
stretch of bank and any related archaeology.
Cut into the southern slope of the spur, directly below the medieval
enclosure, are a series of terraces. These terraces are thought to have been
building platforms associated with the medieval enclosure.
In the post-medieval period the site was used as a hunting lodge.
All fencing, is excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath it is

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Medieval rural settlements in England were marked by great regional diversity
in form, size and type, and the protection of their archaeological remains
needs to take these differences into account. To do this, England has been
divided into three broad Provinces on the basis of each area's distinctive
mixture of nucleated and dispersed settlements. These can be further divided
into sub-Provinces and local regions, possessing characteristics which have
gradually evolved during the past 1500 years or more.
The East Durham Plateau local region is a limestone upland partly covered by
glacial clays. The upper part of the plateau was almost devoid of settlement
until the creation of the late 19th century mining communities, but ancient
villages occupy the varied soils of the western sub-Provincial boundary, and
can be found along the north-south routes just inland from the coast. Towards
the southern edge and the Tees Valley, there has been significant settlement

In some areas of medieval England settlement was dispersed across the
landscape rather than nucleated into villages. Such dispersed settlement in
an area, usually a township or parish, is defined by the lack of a single (or
principle) nucleated settlement focus such as a village and the presence
instead of small settlement units (small hamlets or farmsteads) spread across
the area. These small settlements normally have a degree of interconnection
with their close neighbours, for example in relation to shared common land or
road systems. Dispersed settlements varied enormously from region to region
but where they survive as earthworks their distinguishing features include
roads and other minor tracks, platforms on which houses stood and other
buildings such as barns, enclosed crofts and small enclosed paddocks. In
areas where stone was used for building the outline of building foundations
may still be clearly visible. Communal areas of settlement frequently include
features such as bakehouses, pinfolds and ponds. Areas of dispersed medieval
settlement in both the South Eastern and Northern and Western Provinces of
England. They are found in upland and also some lowland areas. Where found
their archaeological remains are one of the most important sources of
understanding about rural life in the five or more centuries following the
Norman Conquest.
The medieval farmstead 420m east of Buck Rush Farm is well-preserved and
retains significant archaeological deposits. The farmstead is a good example
of its type which will add greatly to our knowledge and understanding of
medieval settlement in the region.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Daniels, R, 'Medieval Rural Settlement In North-East England' in Kilton: A survey of a moorland fringe township, , Vol. Res.Rep2, (1990), 33-57

Source: Historic England

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