Ancient Monuments

History on the Ground

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Round 280m south west of Trebowland

A Scheduled Monument in Gwennap, Cornwall

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Latitude: 50.2051 / 50°12'18"N

Longitude: -5.1836 / 5°11'0"W

OS Eastings: 172924.056076

OS Northings: 38746.92697

OS Grid: SW729387

Mapcode National: GBR Z6.39G8

Mapcode Global: FRA 081H.0DJ

Entry Name: Round 280m south west of Trebowland

Scheduled Date: 6 November 1929

Last Amended: 18 September 2001

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020102

English Heritage Legacy ID: 32945

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: Gwennap

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Gwennap

Church of England Diocese: Truro


The monument includes a later prehistoric to Romano-British round, reused for
hurling matches in the post-medieval period, and situated on level ground on
top of a prominent ridge south east of Lanner. The round is sub-circular in
plan, measuring approximately 94m across overall.
Around the west side, it has an enclosing bank 7.3m wide and 1.2m high inside,
1.8m-2.1m high outside, with a dip 4.5m wide and up to 0.2m deep at the edge
of the interior within it, and an external ditch 4m wide and averaging 1m
deep. On the south side, the bank's outer face has a post-medieval type stone
revetment, and the external ditch beyond this is modified to form a trackway.
On the east side, the earthworks are visible as a scarp approximately 6.6m
wide and 0.9m high, with a slight depression some 3.5m wide beyond. The bank
material, exposed in places on the west side, is earth and stone. The interior
is generally level. A literary source from 1845 provides evidence for the
round's reuse for inter-village hurling matches.
The modern trackway surface, water tank, telegraph pole and wires, fencing,
and dumped stone are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground
beneath them is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Rounds are small embanked enclosures, one of a range of settlement types
dating to between the later Iron Age and the early post-Roman period. Usually
circular or oval, they have a single earth and rubble bank and an outer ditch,
with one entrance breaking the circuit.
Excavations have produced drystone supporting walls within the bank, paved or
cobbled entrance ways, post built gate structures, and remains of timber, turf
or stone built houses of oval or rectangular plan, often set around the inner
edge of the enclosing bank. Other evidence includes hearths, drains, gullies,
pits and rubbish middens. Evidence for industrial activities has been
recovered from some sites, including small scale metal working and, among the
domestic debris, items traded from distant sources. Some rounds are associated
with secondary enclosures, either abutting the round as an annexe or forming
an additional enclosure.
Rounds are viewed primarily as agricultural settlements, the equivalents of
farming hamlets. They were replaced by unenclosed settlement types by the 7th
century AD. Over 750 rounds are recorded in the British Isles, occurring in
areas bordering the Irish Seas, but confined in England to south west Devon
and especially Cornwall, where many more examples may await discovery. Most
recorded examples are sited on hillslopes and spurs.
Rounds are important as one of the major sources of information on settlement
and social organisation of the Iron Age and Roman periods in south west
England. Consequently, sites with significant surviving remains will normally
be considered to be of national importance.

The round 280m south west of Trebowland survives well. Despite partial
reduction and limited modification of the earthworks, these remain
substantially intact. The underlying old land surface, and remains of any
buildings, structures, and other deposits associated with this and with the
upstanding earthworks and ditch, will survive. The association with post-
medieval inter-parish games illustrates one form of reuse of this monument

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
James, C C , A History of the Parish of Gwennap in Cornwall118-120
Padel, O J, Cornish placename elements, (1985), 29, 52
Page, W, The Victoria History of the County of Cornwall: Volume I, (1906), 464
Tangye, M, 'Cornwall Archaeological Society Newsletter' in Trebowland Round, Gwennap, , Vol. 6, (1971), 5
Henderson, C, OW819, (1929)
SW 73 NW 1, Fletcher, MJ, Ordnance Survey Index Card, (1971)
Title: A Geological and Mining Map of the parish of Gwennap
Source Date: 1845
CRO ME 2455
Title: Cornwall Mapping Project
Source Date: 2000

Title: Gwennap Tithe Apportionment
Source Date: 1840
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1880

Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1907

Title: Ordnance Survey 2" drawing
Source Date: 1809

Source: Historic England

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