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Later prehistoric to Romano-British round and Bronze Age to Roman hut circles and enclosures, 230m north west of Callestock Veor

A Scheduled Monument in Perranzabuloe, Cornwall

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.3123 / 50°18'44"N

Longitude: -5.1353 / 5°8'7"W

OS Eastings: 176867.728712

OS Northings: 50524.197678

OS Grid: SW768505

Mapcode National: GBR Z8.JJ5Q

Mapcode Global: FRA 0846.M5Y

Entry Name: Later prehistoric to Romano-British round and Bronze Age to Roman hut circles and enclosures, 230m north west of Callestock Veor

Scheduled Date: 18 September 2001

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020101

English Heritage Legacy ID: 32944

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: Perranzabuloe

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Perranzabuloe

Church of England Diocese: Truro

Details

The monument includes a later prehistoric to Romano-British round and Bronze
Age to Roman hut circles and enclosures, situated on a slight south west slope
on the shoulder of a ridge south of Perranzabuloe.
The round has an irregular plan, measuring approximately 90m across overall,
having a near-circular inner enclosure surrounded by an ovoid annexe with a
more angular north side. The inner enclosure has a protective bank of earth
and stone, visible on the ground in the western half of the site, where it is
9m-15m wide and up to 0.7m high outside, and 0.3m high inside. Geophysical
surveys show evidence for a timber palisade, and a buried external ditch
around 4m wide. The enclosure has an entrance on the west side, and a slightly
dished interior. The surrounding annexe has a buried outer ditch some 2m wide
visible on aerial photographs and geophysical surveys. Comparison with other
such sites suggests that the ditch will have a bank within it, which has now
been spread or removed. The interior of this enclosure falls gently to the
south west with the natural slope.
Geophysical survey and aerial photographs show the buried remains of the
associated hut circles and enclosures within the scheduling. Two circular or
oval features measuring up to about 5m across on the north west and north
sides of the round, approximately 9m and 2m respectively beyond its outer
ditch, are considered to be the sites of hut circles or other settlement
related activity. They are possibly of Bronze Age date, by analogy with an
excavated site nearby. Ditches on the west and south sides of the round, some
2m-4m wide, are considered to represent enclosures associated with it; several
pre-date the round's annexe, and one to the north west post-dates the north
western hut circle mentioned above.
The round is associated with an excavated hut circle and another possible hut
circle site beyond this scheduling. These represent the dwelling places of
prehistoric farmers, mostly dating to the Bronze Age with the earliest
examples from around 1700 BC.
The modern gates and fittings, water trough, fencing wire, corrugated sheeting
and the animal shelter, are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground
beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Rounds are small embanked enclosures, one of a range of settlement types
dating to between the later Iron Age and the early post-Roman period. Usually
circular or oval, they have a single earth and rubble bank and an outer ditch,
with one entrance breaking the circuit.
Excavations have produced drystone supporting walls within the bank, paved or
cobbled entrance ways, post built gate structures, and remains of timber, turf
or stone built houses of oval or rectangular plan, often set around the inner
edge of the enclosing bank. Other evidence includes hearths, drains, gullies,
pits and rubbish middens. Evidence for industrial activities has been
recovered from some sites, including small scale metal working and, among the
domestic debris, items traded from distant sources. Some rounds are associated
with secondary enclosures, either abutting the round as an annexe or forming
an additional enclosure.
Rounds are viewed primarily as agricultural settlements, the equivalents of
farming hamlets. They were replaced by unenclosed settlement types by the 7th
century AD. Over 750 rounds are recorded in the British Isles, occurring in
areas bordering the Irish Seas, but confined in England to south west Devon
and especially Cornwall, where many more examples may await discovery. Most
recorded examples are sited on hillslopes and spurs.
Rounds are important as one of the major sources of information on settlement
and social organisation of the Iron Age and Roman periods in south west
England. Consequently, sites with significant surviving remains will normally
be considered to be of national importance.

The round 230m north west of Callestock Veor survives reasonably well. Despite
infilling of the ditches, and limited reduction of the banks, the earthworks
remain substantially intact. The underlying old land surface will survive
extensively beneath the upstanding earthworks, along with remains of any
buildings, structures, and other deposits associated with it. The features
interpreted as a timber palisade add significant detail to the evidence for
the construction of the round. The associations with external settlement
related features, some pre-dating the annexe, and with a Bronze Age hut circle
beyond this scheduling, provides insights into the development of this
monument type.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Tonkin, T, Parochial History of Cornwall, (1710), 460
Other
Cornwall Mapping Project, (199)
Dyer, CA, Cornwall Mapping Project, (1999)
Jones, A, An Archaeological Investigation at Callestick, Cornwall 1996, 1996, Report for South West Water Services
Jones, A, An Archaeological Investigation at Callestick, Cornwall 1996, 1996, Report for South West Water Services
Jones, A, An Archaeological Investigation at Callestick, Cornwall 1996, 1996, Report for South West Water Services
Report 81/97, Linford, N, Callestick Veor, Cornwall, Report on Geophysical Survey, (1997)
Report 81/97, Linford, N, Callestick Veor, Cornwall, Report on Geophysical Survey, (1997)
Report 81/97, Linford, N, Callestick Veor, Cornwall, Report on Geophysical Survey, (1997)
SW 75 SE 5, King, AN, Ordnance Survey Index Card, (1971)
Thomas, R, Letter to the West Briton, (1851)
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1880
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Title: Perranzabuloe Tithe Apportionment
Source Date: 1840
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Source: Historic England

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