Ancient Monuments

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Churchyard cross in St Andrew's churchyard, Pound Green

A Scheduled Monument in Brockley, Suffolk

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Latitude: 52.1677 / 52°10'3"N

Longitude: 0.6707 / 0°40'14"E

OS Eastings: 582743.673

OS Northings: 255525.439

OS Grid: TL827555

Mapcode National: GBR QFX.2DF

Mapcode Global: VHJH1.KSX2

Entry Name: Churchyard cross in St Andrew's churchyard, Pound Green

Scheduled Date: 24 January 2001

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1019522

English Heritage Legacy ID: 33285

County: Suffolk

Civil Parish: Brockley

Traditional County: Suffolk

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Suffolk

Church of England Parish: Brockley St Andrew

Church of England Diocese: St.Edmundsbury and Ipswich


The monument includes the remains of a standing stone cross located within the
churchyard of St Andrew's Church, approximately 20m to the south of the south
western corner of the chancel and 24m to the south east of the south porch of
the church. The cross, which is a Listed Building Grade II, is medieval in
date and includes the socket stone and the lower part of the shaft.

The socket stone, which stands square to the church, measures 0.80m square at
the base. There are well defined angular mouldings at the angles and the upper
edge is chamfered to an octagonal section on the surface. It measures 0.58m in
height, and there is decorative moulding around the upper part of the stone
displaying two quatrefoils on each of the eight faces. The shaft is mortised
into the socket stone and measures 0.26m high by 0.31m square in plan. The
full height of the cross in its present form is approximately 1.06m.

The surface of the pathway immediately to the south of the cross is excluded
from the scheduling, although the ground beneath it is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

The churchyard cross in St Andrew's churchyard is a good example of a
medieval standing cross with a square to octagonal socket stone and square
shaft. The slightly unusual architectural and decorative features on the
socket stone give it additional importance. Located to the south of the
chancel and to the south east of the church porch, it is believed to stand
near to its original position. The cross shows no evidence of restoration and
has continued in use as a public monument and amenity from medieval times
until the present day.

Source: Historic England


4/41, Churchyard cross, (1955)

Source: Historic England

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