Ancient Monuments

History on the Ground

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The Stonehouse bastle, 240m north of Denton Foot

A Scheduled Monument in Brampton, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.9565 / 54°57'23"N

Longitude: -2.6706 / 2°40'13"W

OS Eastings: 357155.36369

OS Northings: 562631.318623

OS Grid: NY571626

Mapcode National: GBR 9CS4.M1

Mapcode Global: WH7ZT.YPG5

Entry Name: The Stonehouse bastle, 240m north of Denton Foot

Scheduled Date: 25 July 1978

Last Amended: 18 July 2000

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1019210

English Heritage Legacy ID: 32855

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Brampton

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Nether Denton St Cuthbert

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument includes the upstanding and buried remains of a medieval bastle
known as The Stonehouse located in an elevated position at the head of Pott's
Cleugh, 240m north of Denton Foot. It is constructed of squared and coursed
rubble and measures approximately 16.5m by 7.6m and, despite being roofless,
largely survives to its original two-storey height. There are two entrances to
the ground floor, one doorway in the south east wall and another in the south
west wall. On the ground floor there are narrow windows in the south east,
south west and the north west walls. The upper floor was the main living area
and fragmentary remains of the principal fireplace which projected externally
on corbels still survive on the south east wall; also along this wall are
three windows. There is a single window in the south west wall adjacent to an
area of partial collapse where a first floor doorway is thought to have been
located. In the north west wall there is a window and a fireplace.
The Stonehouse bastle is a Listed Building Grade II.
All fence posts are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath
these features is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Bastles are small thick-walled farmhouses in which the living quarters are
situated above a ground floor byre. The vast majority are simple rectangular
buildings with the byre entrance typically placed in one gable end, an upper
door in the side wall, small stoutly-barred windows and few architectural
features or details. Some have stone barrel vaults to the basement but the
majority had a first floor of heavy timber beams carrying stone slabs. The
great majority of bastles are solitary rural buildings, although a few
nucleated settlements with more than one bastle are also known. Most bastles
were constructed between about 1575 and 1650, although earlier and later
examples are also known. They were occupied by middle-rank farmers. Bastles
are confined to the northern border counties of England, in Cumbria,
Northumberland and Durham. The need for such strongly defended farmsteads can
be related to the troubled social conditions of the later Middle Ages, which
in these border areas lasted until (indeed after) the union of the English and
Scottish Crowns in 1603. Less than 300 bastles are known to survive, of which
a large number have been significantly modified by their continuing use as
domestic or other buildings. All surviving bastles which retain significant
original remains will normally be identified as nationally important.

The Stonehouse medieval bastle is one of a number of bastles located in
northern Cumbria close to the Scottish border. As such it will contribute
greatly to our knowledge and understanding of the wider border settlement and
economy during the medieval period.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Ramm, H G , Shielings and Bastles, (1970), 77-8
English Heritage, English Heritage: Register of Buildings at Risk. North West, 1999,

Source: Historic England

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