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St Winefride's Holy Well at Holywell Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Broxton, Cheshire West and Chester

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.0918 / 53°5'30"N

Longitude: -2.7871 / 2°47'13"W

OS Eastings: 347387.449688

OS Northings: 355243.417139

OS Grid: SJ473552

Mapcode National: GBR 7G.97HL

Mapcode Global: WH88W.5K23

Entry Name: St Winefride's Holy Well at Holywell Farm

Scheduled Date: 21 January 1999

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1018702

English Heritage Legacy ID: 30380

County: Cheshire West and Chester

Civil Parish: Broxton

Traditional County: Cheshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cheshire

Church of England Parish: Coddington St Mary

Church of England Diocese: Chester

Details

The monument includes a well head and drain channel built of stone in the
garden of Holywell Farm on the western side of the farmhouse.
The well is one of a number of holy wells dedicated to the memory of
St Winefride which were placed to mark the route of her remains when they were
taken from Holywell in Clwyd, where she was martyred, to Shrewsbury Abbey.
This formed a station on a medieval pilgrim trail which followed this route.
The well is a circular basin 3.5m in diameter and 1.75m deep, lined with
ashlar sandstone blocks and mortared below the water line. The bottom is silt
and sand through which the water flows in several separate funnels. On the
north side there is a gap in the surround which has been dammed with bricks in
the recent past and a plastic pipe inserted to take away the overflow to a
stone lined channel 2.5m long and 0.5m wide. At the end of the channel a
ceramic drain takes the overflow into a stream which flows through the garden.
The stonework is medieval and the top of the construction is worn down by the
feet of visitors to the well.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Holy wells are water sources with specifically Christian associations. The
custom of venerating springs and wells as sacred sites is also known to have
characterised pre-Christian religions in Britain and, although Christian wells
have been identified from as early as the 6th century AD, it is clear that
some holy wells originated as earlier sacred sites. The cult of holy wells
continued throughout the medieval period. Its condemnation at the time of the
Reformation (c.1540) ended new foundations but local reverence and folklore
customs at existing holy wells often continued, in some cases to the present
day.
The holy wells sometimes functioned as sites for baptism but they were also
revered for less tangible reasons, some of which may have had origins in pre-
Christian customs, such as folklore beliefs in the healing powers of the water
and its capacity to effect a desired outcome for future events. Associated
rituals often evolved, usually requiring the donation of an object or coin to
retain the 'sympathy' of the well for the person seeking its benefits.
At their simplest, holy wells may be unelaborated natural springs with
associated religious traditions. Structural additions may include lined well
shafts or conduit heads on springs, often with a tank to gather the water at
the surface. The roofing of walled enclosures to protect the water source and
define the sacred area created well houses which may be simple, unadorned
small structures closely encompassing the water source, or larger buildings,
decorated in the prevailing architectural style and facilitating access with
features such as steps to the water source and open areas with stone benching
where visitors might shelter. At their most elaborate, chapels, and sometimes
churches, may have been built over the well or adjacent well house. The number
of holy wells is not known but estimates suggest at least 600 nationally. They
provide important information on the nature of religious beliefs and practices
and on the relationship between religion and the landscape during the medieval
period.

The holy well of St Winefride is well documented and in good condition with
most of its stonework intact. In spite of the replacement of the dam by a
brick construction the bulk of the structure is original.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Dodgson, J, The Place Names of Cheshire, Volume 4, (1972), 84

Source: Historic England

Other nearby scheduled monuments

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