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Post-medieval breastwork, curtain wall and associated defensive structures on the periphery of The Garrison, St Mary's

A Scheduled Monument in St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly

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Coordinates

Latitude: 49.9115 / 49°54'41"N

Longitude: -6.3226 / 6°19'21"W

OS Eastings: 89777.445629

OS Northings: 10213.447267

OS Grid: SV897102

Mapcode National: GBR BXSX.DQH

Mapcode Global: VGYC4.CHB6

Entry Name: Post-medieval breastwork, curtain wall and associated defensive structures on the periphery of The Garrison, St Mary's

Scheduled Date: 21 May 1963

Last Amended: 19 March 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1018370

English Heritage Legacy ID: 15434

County: Isles of Scilly

Civil Parish: St. Mary's

Built-Up Area: Hugh town

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Isles of Scilly

Church of England Diocese: Truro

Details

The monument includes a complex circuit of fortifications along the periphery
of The Garrison, the south western promontory of St Mary's in the Isles of
Scilly. The Garrison, known as the `Hugh' until the 18th century, commands the
main deep water approach to the islands through St Mary's Sound and The Road,
and controls the chief harbour on Scilly, St Mary's Pool. The fortifications
around the slopes of The Garrison were constructed, occupied and modified in
successive stages from the early 17th century to the mid-20th century. The
masonry curtain wall, batteries, redans and gateway in this monument are
Listed Grade I and form part of a monument in the care of the Secretary of
State.
From the mid-16th century the defences on Scilly reflected national interests
in defending the Western Approaches, initially to counter threats of war with
France and Spain after the Reformation and due to increasing trade
competition. Limited defence works during the 1540s and 1550s were not
garrisoned into the later 16th century, but after the Spanish Armada the
islands' defences were urgently reviewed. Consequently The Garrison was
identified as the prime focus for future defensive fortifications.
Following the building of an artillery castle, the Star Castle, on the
northern crest of the Hugh in 1593-4, the controlling position of the
promontory in the islands' defences was enhanced from c.1601 by reinforcing
its landward approach with the first phase of this monument: a bastioned
curtain wall from coast to coast along the eastern slope where it descends to
the sandy isthmus that links the Hugh to the main body of St Mary's and where
the Scillies' main settlement, Hughtown, grew from the later 16th century,
fronting St Mary's Pool to the north.
The c.1601 curtain wall survives, incorporating later modifications and
rebuilds, from the present Gunner's Well Battery in the north to the Lower
Benham Battery, 330m to the SSE. It has a fabric of mortared uncoursed rubble,
with irregular blocks packed by smaller stones. The wall top is generally 2m
wide, though its present outward chamfer may result from 18th century
refurbishment. Its inner, western, face is generally 1.3m-1.5m high, forming a
parapet beside a thoroughfare, approximately 3.5m wide and now followed by a
modern road except along the northern 100m. The wall's outer, eastern, face
varies in height with the underlying topography, rising 4m-5m high in places.
Early plans show the wall flanked along its entire length by an outer ditch,
now largely infilled and masked but surviving as a visible feature over its
southern stretch approximately 80m from the Duke of Leeds Battery to the Upper
Benham Battery. This visible ditch is up to 4m wide and 0.5m deep from its
outer lip; its inner face is cut over 1m into the bedrock beneath the curtain
wall. Early records indicate the former outermost component of this defensive
line was a broad earthwork called a glacis, a raised artificial slope,
extending approximately 15m beyond the ditch to provide a clear field of fire
from the parapet and bastions; no known remains of that glacis have survived
following truncation by later development and landscaping.
Early plans show the c.1601 curtain wall was provided with five projecting
walled bastions, of quadrilateral and pentagonal forms, spaced 75m-85m apart
except for the closely-spaced Upper and Lower Benham Batteries covering the
steep southern descent to the coast. These bastions housed gun batteries which
occupied the same sites, with similar plans, as the present batteries which
are known as, from north to south: the Gunner's Well; King George's; Duke of
Leeds'; Upper Benham and Lower Benham Batteries. Those present batteries
reflect varying degrees of later rebuild but portions of the early uncoursed
rubble walling survive extensively in the facing walls of at least the
Gunners' Well and the two Benham Batteries. The defences originally included a
detached battery, since destroyed, on a natural rise called Mount Hollis,
forward of the present King George's Battery and beyond this monument. The
original gateway through the curtain wall has not survived.
The early curtain wall is pierced by three underground passages, called
sallyports. Each survives as a stone-walled and slab-roofed passage emerging
at an eastern entrance framed by granite jambs and lintel. At the west, the
sallyports were accessed by steps descending to a grooved portcullis recess;
above the entrance, a slot along the recess carried the portcullis draw-chain
to a small stepped superstructure. The northern sallyport, now blocked at the
west, is between the King George's and Duke of Leeds' Batteries, and the
central sallyport is between the present Duke of Leeds' and the Upper Benham
Batteries, each passing beneath the thoroughfare and the wall. The southern
sallyport curves south beneath the south west corner of the Upper Benham
Battery from the inner face of the curtain wall.
By 1655, the curtain wall had been extended south from the Upper Benham
Battery for 200m, on its present line, to the Lower Broom Platform facing the
north west side of Porth Cressa. A plan of that date shows two small gun
platforms projecting from this extended wall at the sites of the present Upper
and Lower Broom Platforms, together with an outer ditch beside the curtain
wall up to the northern platform. These early platforms were replaced by the
present Broom Platforms by the later 18th century, however rubble foundations
of both early platforms survive outside the present wall, the southernmost
flanked by remains of its southern wall.
During the English Civil War, Scilly was held by Royalist troops from 1642-6
and 1648-51, with an interlude of Parliamentary control between. The Royalist
troops became increasingly isolated, forming the last outpost of Royalist
strength after 1649. Their preparations for the anticipated attack included a
major strengthening of the defences of St Mary's. Their fortification of the
Hugh is shown on a slightly later plan of 1655, depicting the defences
extended by a bank and inner ditch, called a breastwork, along the coastal
perimeter of the promontory, south from the Lower Broom Platform and around to
the Gunner's Well Battery, to complete the defensive circuit. This breastwork
is virtually intact over much of the north western coast, surviving as an
earthen bank, generally 2.5m wide and 1m high on the outer side, accompanied
on the inner side by a ditch averaging 1.5m wide and 0.75m deep. In places, an
inner and outer facing of cobbles and slabs is visible along the bank. Behind
the south east and south west coasts, some sectors of the breastwork have been
lost to coastal erosion, while much of the breastwork's northern course is
masked by 18th century defences.
Three large batteries and nine smaller ancillary batteries project from the
breastwork. The larger batteries are at the major angles in The Garrison
coastline: on the south east angle at Morning Point; on the SSW angle at
Woolpack Point, and on the western angle at Steval Point. The latter two are
defined by remains of curving banks, up to 1.3m high and 20m-28m in external
diameter, with traces of an outer facing of slabs, plus, at Woolpack, coursed
rubble walling up to 1m high revealed by coastal erosion. At Steval Point,
associated deep midden deposits are considered to derive from a barracks
depicted behind the battery on the plan of 1655. That plan also shows a
battery south east of Steval Point called `Bartholomew Platform', of which no
remains are visible. Besides these surviving large batteries, two others on
the NNW and northern angles of the coastline are named `Resolution' and
`Newman Platform' on the 1655 plan but their sites are masked by the later
structures of the King Charles' Battery and Store House Battery respectively.
Supplementing the major batteries, the nine smaller batteries survive from a
total of 14-15 depicted along the breastwork on 17th and early 18th century
maps. These are defined by banks resembling the breastwork bank but erosion
reveals coursed rubble outer facing at several. Behind the bank is a levelled
platform, usually trapezoidal and up to 8.5m wide and 4m long from front to
rear. The platform is backed either by a slight levelling backscarp or, in at
least one case, by a distinct bank with an access break to each side. One
small battery has been lost to erosion north of Morning Point; parts of two of
the three or four mapped batteries survive between Morning Point and Woolpack
Point; parts of four of the six mapped batteries survive between Woolpack
Point and Steval Point, and the three mapped batteries between Steval Point
and King Charles' Battery all survive well. No known remains survive of a
single platform mapped between the Store House Battery and Gunners' Well. The
central battery along the north west coast is accompanied by a levelled
hollow, 5m wide and 3m long, backed by the breastwork; this feature, probably
an ancillary store, appears as a distinct structure on a map of 1715.
The defences on Scilly were critically reviewed by Colonel Lilly in 1715
following war with France over the Spanish Succession. From then until 1750,
the implementation of Lilly's recommendations by Master Gunner Abraham Tovey
produced a major refurbishment in stone of the defensive circuit around the
Hugh, or `The Garrison' as it came to be known from this phase.
Lilley's plan of 1715 shows the curtain wall already extended north west to
the Store House Battery on The Garrison's northern tip, and both that battery
and King Charles' Battery, to the south west, had by then been faced with
masonry. This curtain wall survives, generally 1.9m-2m wide, 1m high on the
inner side and 2.5m high on the outer, with a turf-capped top chamfered
outwards. By 1742 the curtain wall had been extended to King Charles' Battery.
This latter wall shares many features of the other walling built during
Tovey's refurbishment: coursed walling employing neatly dressed, squared
slabs, called ashlar, facing mortared rubble infill; a steep outward slope on
the outer wall face, called a batter, and splayed openings called embrasures
in the wall's upper edge to cover the gun crew while firing the cannon.
Tovey also refurbished the 17th century masonry defences across the neck of
the isthmus, heightening parts of the curtain wall by a capping of ashlar
blocks, notably in the north and along much of the wall's inner face, creating
an outwardly chamfered wall-top. At the batteries in the curtain wall bastions
the extent of Tovey's rebuild varies, affecting the upper surviving parts of
the two Benham Batteries in the south and the Gunners' Well Battery in the
north, but involving an almost complete rebuild of King George's and the Duke
of Leeds Batteries in the central sector. By 1742, a new rectangular battery,
Jefferson's Battery, had been created from an earthen platform built between
1655 and 1715, extending north within the curtain wall from the 17th century
guardhouse beside the Garrison Gate. General features of Tovey's refurbishment
at these batteries include a parapet, usually with drainage slots, along the
battery platform edge; paved hardstanding for guns around all or parts of the
platform periphery and, in at least some cases, a low rear wall behing the
battery.
In 1742, Tovey re-modelled the Garrison Gate, the 18th century ashlar
replacing the earlier 17th century fabric for several metres each side of the
gateway. Tovey's gateway survives with an arched vault carrying the curtain
wall and a wall-walk over the top, flanked to each side by a parapet. The
outer wall of the gateway is constricted by a flattened arch and closed by two
wooden doors. On its outer face, the arch has a moulded frame beneath a drip
moulding. Above the mouldings a plaque bears Tovey's initials `AT'; above that
is a sunken panel with the Royal monogram `GR', the date 1742 and the initials
`FG' of Francis Godolphin, the islands' governor. The gateway is surmounted by
a small bell-cote. The outer approach to the gateway is flanked for several
metres by low walls, stepped along their inner faces.
Between 1742 and 1750, the masonry curtain wall was extended behind the
southern coasts of The Garrison. Plans show the intention to extend the
curtain wall around the entire coastal margin but the north west sector was
never built and the wall ends at a ragged western terminal behind Steval
Point.
The extended curtain wall runs well back from the breastwork line to
minimise the risk from coastal erosion; it averages 1.3m-1.7m wide at its
chamfered top, 1.2m-1.5m high on its vertical inner face and 2m-3m high
on its outer face batter. At irregular intervals it incorporates embrasures
and drainage slots, often with projecting spouts. The quality of masonry
improves and the size of facing blocks employed increases as one
progresses clockwise around the defensive line; these fabric changes often
occur abruptly, reflecting differing building phases, changes in stone
supply and/or work-gangs deployed in the construction. The thoroughfare
behind the 17th century curtain wall was extended as a levelled, partly
rock-cut, track behind this new curtain wall, facilitating the supply of
cannon to the batteries but by 1750 this track had already become a
popular walk for islanders.
The curtain wall linked three large new batteries to replace the breastwork
batteries at Morning Point, Woolpack Point and the earlier Bartholomew
Battery, on the south east, SSW and south west of The Garrison coast
respectively. Tovey also added a small battery on the south west, inland
of an earlier ancillary battery between the Woolpack and Bartholomew
Batteries. Confusion in the 18th and 19th century about battery names results
in Tovey's battery landward of the breastwork's `Bartholomew Battery' now
being known as `Colonel George Boscawen's Battery'; the present `Bartholomew
Battery' is the small battery Tovey added on the south west coast.
Each battery is defined by a steeply battered ashlar wall, 2.3m-2.6m wide
at the top, though at Morning Point thinner walls were later added to increase
the cover of natural outcrops on the north. Wall-heights vary considerably
with the topography, rising to 3m high at the Woolpack Battery. The walls had
embrasures, though these survive largely intact only at Woolpack. The
batteries' levelled interiors all had paved gun hardstandings, most of which
survive except at Colonel Boscawen's Battery whose interior was excavated to
house an early 20th century military generator. Each large battery is
accompanied by a break in the curtain wall. Beside the Morning Point and
Woolpack Batteries, this comprises a narrow foot-passage through the wall;
beside Colonel Boscawen's Battery, a broad ramp slopes down to the outer side
from the corner between the battery and curtain wall.
The batteries differ markedly in plan. Morning Point Battery is a flattened
pentagon, 38m long, WNW-ESE, by up to 19m wide internally; the gun
hardstandings here are unusual in having edge-set slabs along their rear
edges, backed by slight earth banks, acting as back-stops to the guns' recoil.
The Woolpack Battery is pentagonal, 30m long, NNE-SSW, by up to 39m wide
internally; this battery has a substantial rear wall, to 1.75m high, with a
formal entrance arch at its centre. A plastered recess in the battery's east
corner derives from an ancillary building, its lean-to end incorporated into
the battery's rear wall. Colonel George Boscawen's Battery is semi-octagonal,
20m long, north east-south west, by 35m north west-south east internally, much
modified by the later generator. The small battery now known as `Bartholomew
Battery' is an irregular quadrilateral, up to 12.5m long, north east-south
west, by 24m wide. Supplementing these batteries, Tovey replaced the
breastwork's smaller gun batteries by six triangular walled platforms called
redans, projecting from the curtain wall and ranging up to 15m long and 24m
wide.
Rubble and facing stone for this major extension came partly from nearby
quarries; two large examples, up to 40m across and approximately 6m deep, are
cut into the hillslope in this monument behind the Morning Point and the
Woolpack Batteries. Wedge-split boulders on this coast may also derive
from this building activity.
After this massive refurbishment, the later 18th - early 19th centuries saw
few changes. Coastal erosion at the 17th century Upper and Lower Broom
Batteries required their rebuild after 1750 by extending the curtain wall
across the bases of these formerly projecting batteries, reducing them to
steps in the curtain wall line; vertical joints in the masonry mark the
limits of the refurbishment at each platform. A stone sentry box was also
built on the north west corner of King George's Battery, overlooking the
approach to the main gateway.
On the south eastern coast between the Lower Broom Platform and
Morning Point Battery, the narrow strip between the breastwork and the
masonry curtain wall was divided into small cultivation plots, recorded in
1796 as used by Garrison soldiers. Those plots survive, abandoned, but
defined by low banks up to 1m high. They are linked by a path along the
curtain wall's outer foot, reached by stone steps down the wall's outer face
at intervals beneath embrasures. By the early 19th century the plots had
been extended along the south coast to the Woolpack Battery; these are still
visible.
The Garrison was re-armed during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars,
1793-1815, but no major structural changes were made. After 1815 the troop
strength was drastically reduced and The Garrison was staffed by veterans and
invalids.
By the 1830s, and probably during the 1793-1815 wars, a small prison and
guard room had been built against the landward side of the curtain wall's
unfinished western terminal above Steval Point. The building was rented in
1853 to the mason at Bishop Rock lighthouse but by 1888 it was ruinous; its
north wall survives, 5m long, faced with uncoursed rubble. In 1834, Master
Gunner Porterfield drew plans for a men's and women's privy-house on the
curtain wall east of the Store House Battery for the new Coastguard Force. The
privy-house survives largely intact, built as drawn. By the mid-19th century,
the Garrison's military installations are recorded as largely rented out or
neglected and in 1863, their troops were disbanded, leaving only a caretaker
in charge.
In the 1890s, an Army and Navy Review recommended the Isles of Scilly should
be established as an advanced naval signalling and re-fuelling station and be
classed as a defended port against perceived threats from the French Atlantic
naval bases. Implementation of this between 1898 and 1906 produced a range of
defence works focussed largely on The Garrison. Most were sited beyond this
monument on The Garrison's summit plateau, where two large batteries and a
barrack block were built between 1898 and 1901. By 1902, those batteries'
6-inch guns were felt to give inadequate defence against motor torpedo boat
attack and two more batteries were approved, armed with 12-pounder quick-
firing (QF) guns.
One of the 12-pounder QF batteries, the Steval Point Battery, is located in
this monument at the crest of the western slope above Steval Point. Shielded
by a steep `L-shaped' earthen rampart, the battery has two concrete gun
emplacements situated 15m apart behind the rampart's west flank, each with a
low concrete parapet along the forward edge of a platform incorporating a
circular studded holdfast for the gun mount. The rear faces of the
emplacements contain lockers, called expense magazines, to hold ammunition for
immediate use. Behind the emplacements a deep rectangular access and light
well leads to an underground brick-vaulted ammunition magazine. The well, with
original tubular steel railings, is faced by rendered concrete walling
including a 1904 date slab. A door in the west wall leads to shell and
cartridge stores; doors in the north and south walls lead to smaller storage
and workshop rooms. Ventilation pipes ascend the upper walls of the light well
from the magazine and southern store. Behind the rampart and magazine well is
a levelled area protected by a concrete parapet on the south. In the north of
the battery is the flat-roofed `L-shaped' battery caretaker's quarters, with a
low concrete parapet along its roof's seaward edge. These quarters, currently
a dwelling, are excluded from this scheduling.
Other structures in the monument that complemented the batteries of this
phase include two range-finding searchlight installations, termed `defence
electric lights' (DELs), together with the searchlight director stations that
controlled them, and the engine room that powered them. The DELs are located
close to the tips of Woolpack and Steval Points, within the 17th century
batteries there. Each survives as a `D-shaped' rendered concrete building, 5m
long by 3.8m wide and 2.9m high overall, with a flat, concrete roof supported
by steel girders. The curved end faces seaward and contains the searchlight
aperture, 1.25m high, with a 180 degree field of view and corroded iron
shutter-guides along its upper and lower edges. A doorway is located in the
recessed right-hand corner of each DEL. The floor of the Woolpack DEL has the
square outline of its searchlight mounting with an angled cable-supply trench.
Each DEL is partly masked by an earthen bank, rising to the base of the
aperture but higher at the rear, leaving an access gap. The bank joins the
17th century battery bank at the Woolpack DEL where, beyond the bank's seaward
edge, a drainpipe emerges and cut T-section stanchion bases and grooves
survive from former fences and barbed wire entanglements. A pipe to the
coastal cliff also drains the Steval DEL.
Two searchlight observation posts to control these DELs overlook them on
the midslope behind the Woolpack and Steval Points. Each is a
subrectangular rendered concrete building with chamfered forward corners.
Partly sunken into the hillside, each has a flat, girder-supported concrete
roof, 3.7m long by 2.7m wide. The Woolpack post survives intact, with a
shutter-closed viewing-aperture at the chamfered end facing seaward and metal
pipes through the roof and the west wall. The Steval post was modified to form
a pillbox in World War II. Each post has a rear doorway; at Steval a single
stairwell extends back from the rear wall but at Woolpack two stairwells rise
to each side. The Woolpack post also has a slit-trench beyond its forward
walls.
Electricity for the DELs was supplied by an oil-fired generator housed in
a large, subterranean engine room occupying most of the interior of the 18th
century Colonel Boscawen's Battery. The engine room has rendered concrete
walls and facings and a flat roof with raised ventilation points, now
blocked. The roof is sunk into the interior of the battery and measures
approximately 11m by 17.5m overall. The engine room's doorway and windows, all
now blocked, are in its north east wall, facing a deep access well with
concrete steps. A tunnel, approximately 1.5m square in section and now
blocked, is cut south west from the engine room, emerging at the coastal cliff
as a visible feature.
Other features from this phase include a rock-cut well north east of the
Bartholomew Battery and now enclosed within a modern brick wall. A small
square building shown in the northern corner of the Bartholomew Battery
on the 1907 OS map has been removed but its former presence explains
a missing paved gun hardstanding behind the embrasure at that point. A
rectangular structure shown on the same map within the north western
18th century redan near Steval Point is now visible as a flat concrete raft,
11m long, north east-south west, by 6m wide, partly covered by thin turf,
surrounded by sawn-off bases of metal fence posts.
During construction of these defences, a radical review of national defence
policy shifted the percieved dominant threat, and the emphasis of coastal
defence, to the east to face growing German power and ambition. This re-
orientation was strengthened by the Entente Cordiale with France in 1904 and
reflected in the Owen Report of 1905, recommending the abandonment of the
Isles of Scilly as a naval station and defended port. Some of the 1898-1906
fortifications had been used for training but the guns were dismantled in 1906
and by 1910 had been removed to storage in Falmouth. The eastward emphasis was
maintained in the First World War; then the Garrison housed some naval
personnel and an observation-balloon base but this monument contains no new
defensive structures of that period.
In World War II, troops were again stationed on The Garrison, which housed a
radar cell and aviation fuel stores. Protection against enemy landing parties
was provided by five pillboxes around the periphery of the Garrison, all
within this monument. Four survive largely intact but the fifth, by the
Garrison Gate, presents no known remains. Three pillboxes are built into
forward points of 18th century batteries: in the Upper Benham Battery, the
Morning Point Battery and the Woolpack Battery. Each is built from concrete
blocks with a flat concrete roof; at Upper Benham and Morning Point, they are
sunk into the battery interior with their forward upper faces, with gun slits,
projecting slightly above the rear of the 18th century battery wall. At
Woolpack, the pillbox occupies the full thickness of the battery's forward
apex and was effectively concealed, its forward facets being neatly faced with
granite slabs, matching the fabric of the 18th century battery wall below. The
earlier searchlight director station above Steval Point was converted into the
other pillbox by removing its shutters and infilling the aperture with
concrete blocks, leaving a gun slit in its foward facet and creating two new
slits in the sides.
The pillboxes were complemented by barbed wire entanglements and firebreaks
leaving no known remains, though contemporary diarists discuss dumping the
barbed wire at sites within the monument in 1946, marking the latest event in
this monument's successive fortification.
Excluded from this scheduling are all English Heritage fixtures and fittings;
all modern road, track and drive surfaces; all modern power supply lines,
electric lights, fittings and supporting poles; all modern drains, sewage
pipes, breather points and collection chamber, service pipes, cables and
fibres and their various service trenches and fittings; the modern flagpole
and fittings and the modern bollards at the Duke of Leeds Battery; all modern
garden furniture, sheds, greenhouses, fences, gates and gateposts; the battery
caretaker's quarters at Steval Point Battery and its tenant's privately-owned
fixtures and fittings; all modern buildings erected against the curtain wall
faces; but the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The Isles of Scilly, the westernmost of the granite masses of south west
England, contain a remarkable abundance and variety of archaeological remains
from over 4000 years of human activity. The remote physical setting of the
islands, over 40km beyond the mainland in the approaches to the English
Channel, has lent a distinctive character to those remains, producing many
unusual features important for our broader understanding of the social
development of early communities.
Throughout the human occupation there has been a gradual submergence of the
islands' land area, providing a stimulus to change in the environment and its
exploitation. This process has produced evidence for responses to such change
against an independent time-scale, promoting integrated studies of
archaeological, environmental and linguistic aspects of the islands'
settlement.
The islands' archaeological remains demonstrate clearly the gradually
expanding size and range of contacts of their communities. By the post-
medieval period (from AD 1540), the islands occupied a nationally strategic
location, resulting in an important concentration of defensive works
reflecting the development of fortification methods and technology from the
mid 16th to the 20th centuries. An important and unusual range of post-
medieval monuments also reflects the islands' position as a formidable hazard
for the nation's shipping in the western approaches.
The exceptional preservation of the archaeological remains on the islands has
long been recognised, producing an unusually full and detailed body of
documentation, including several recent surveys.

The strategic location of the Isles of Scilly in the Western Approaches
assumed increased importance nationally by the mid-16th century. From that
point the islands' defences have reflected national considerations, from
initial works in the 1540s-1550s involving artillery castles on Tresco and
on St Mary's to counter threats from France and Spain, through to defences of
the mid-20th century designed to counter German landings. The early
recognition of The Garrison as the chief defensive focus on the islands has
resulted in 350 years of successive fortification of this promontory.
The fortifications erected during most phases of this monument have survived
well. Although the component batteries and other defences each have
considerable importance in their own rights, the monument's value as a
surviving defensive system is even greater. Spatially, the rare survival of
such a complete defensive circuit allows the relationships of its components
to be studied against their armament capabilities and the strategic methods by
which those defences were intended to be used. Through time, the fact that
each successive stage in The Garrison's defensive system has tended not to
obliterate the previous defences is in itself rare and permits close study of
the effects on ground defence works of developing armament technology and
military strategic thinking through most of the post-medieval period, against
the controlled background of a single location. Considerations of national
defence have directly inspired each of the monument's successive phases. Even
where such considerations led to the abandonment of the early 1900s naval
base, the result has been a very rare survival of inter-related defences of
the early 20th century, within and beyond this monument on the Garrison,
barely modified by later works.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Arlott, J, Island Camera, (1983)
Ashbee, P, Halangy Porth, St Mary's, Isles of Scilly, Excavations 1975-76, (1983), 3-42
Bowley, R L, The Fortunate Islands: A History of the Isles of Scilly, (1968)
Gill, C, The Isles of Scilly, (1975)
Heath, R, A Natural and Historical Account of the Isles of Scilly, (1750)
Parkes, C/CAU, Fieldwork in Scilly: March 1990, (1990)
Ratcliffe, J, Scilly's Archaeological Heritage, (1992)
Saunders, A D, Fortress Britain, (1989)
Stevenson, I V, Some West Country Defences, (1989), 11-26
Saunders, A D, 'Cornish Archaeology' in Harry's Walls, St Mary's Scilly; a new interpretation, , Vol. 1, (1962)
Saunders, A D, 'Cornish Archaeology' in Harry's Walls, St Mary's Scilly; a new interpretation, , Vol. 1, (1962), 85-91
Other
1358-0/8/79; The Garrison, Hugh House, DNH, List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest, (1992)
1358-0/8/82;Garrison outer walls, etc, DNH, List of Buidlings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest, (1992)
Copy given to MPPA by Mr H Wakefield, Master Gunner Porterfield, Plan of privvy to be built east of the Store House Battery, (1834)
Copy given to MPPA by Mr H Wakefield, Porterfield, Master Gunner William, Elevation, Plan, Section of Privy proposed for use of Coastguard, (1834)
Copy given to MPPA by Mr H Wakefield, Porterfield, Master Gunner William, Sketch and Plan of Back Guard Room and Prison, St Mary's, Scilly, (1834)
DoE/EH, Ancient Monuments Terrier AA 72982/1-3, (1984)
DoE/EH, Ancient Monuments Terrier, AA 72982/1-3: Garrison Walls, Scilly, (1984)
DoE/HBMC, Ancient Monuments Terrier AA 72982/1-3; Garrison Walls, Scilly, (1984)
Gerrard, S., English Heritage Book of Dartmoor, 1997, Forthcoming
Keystone Historic Buildings Consultants, Star Castle, St Mary's, Isles of Scilly, 1993, Unpublished report for EH
letter dated 3/11/1993, John Guy (Fortress Study Group), Letter to J Ratcliffe (CAU) re 1898-1906 defences on Scilly, (1993)
letter dated 3/11/1993, John Guy (Fortress Study Group), Letter to J Ratcliffe (CAU) re 1898-1906 defences on Scilly, (1993)
Linzey, R, Pendennis Castle, Falmouth; Observations and historical notes, 1995,
p 35, Parkes, C/CAU, Fieldwork in Scilly: March 1990, (1990)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entries for PRN 7904 and 7904.03, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entries for PRN 7904.01 and 7906.16, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entries for PRN 7904.02 & 7906.17, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entries for PRN 7904.04-.12; 7904.16-.18; 7904.22, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entries for PRN 7904.14, .15, .19, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entries for PRN 7904.15 & 7906.27, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entries for PRN 7904.20, .21, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entries for PRN 7908.02, .07, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entries for PRN 7908.04-.06, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entries PRN 7900, and 7904.05 for this item, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7900, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7900.05, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7900.06, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7900.12, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7901.01, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7901.02, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7901.03, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7903.05, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.01 & 7906.16, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.01-.02, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.02, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.06, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.10, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.11, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.12, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.13, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.14 and 7906.26, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.17, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.18 & 7906.25, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.19, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.20, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7904.21, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7905.01, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7905.10, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7905.12, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7905.13, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7905.16, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7905.17, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7905.18, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7905.19, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7905.20, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.02, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.03, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.04, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.05, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.06-.08, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.09, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.10, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.11, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.12, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.13, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.14, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.15, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.16-.17, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.17, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.18, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.21, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.22, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.23, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.24, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.25, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.28, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7906.29, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7907, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7908.01, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7908.02, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7908.03, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7908.04-.06, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7908.07, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7908.08, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7908.10, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7908.11, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7908.12, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7908.13, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7908.14, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7909, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7909.04, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7909.05, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7909.06, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7909.07, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7909.08, (1994)
Parkes, C/CAU, Scilly SMR entry PRN 7906.21, (1994)
pp 14, 32, Parkes, C/CAU, Fieldwork in Scilly: March 1990, (1990)
pp 18-23; Boscawen's Battery, Parkes, C/CAU, Fieldwork in Scilly: March 1990, (1990)
pp 26-8, Parkes, C/CAU, Fieldwork in Scilly: March 1990, (1990)
pp 5-15; Steval Point, Parkes, C/CAU, Fieldwork in Scilly: March 1990, (1990)
Title: 1:2500 Ordnance Survey Maps: SV 8909; SV 8910; SV 9009; SV 9010
Source Date: 1981
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Transfer clause 4, Corresp. 12/1/1981, DoE/EH, Ancient Monuments Terrier AA 72982/1-3; Garrison Walls, Scilly, (1984)

Source: Historic England

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