Ancient Monuments

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Cross in St Andrew's churchyard

A Scheduled Monument in Field Dalling, Norfolk

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.9111 / 52°54'39"N

Longitude: 0.983 / 0°58'58"E

OS Eastings: 600681.746

OS Northings: 339014.523001

OS Grid: TG006390

Mapcode National: GBR S7W.HCK

Mapcode Global: WHLR0.23D4

Entry Name: Cross in St Andrew's churchyard

Scheduled Date: 16 November 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1018344

English Heritage Legacy ID: 31145

County: Norfolk

Civil Parish: Field Dalling

Traditional County: Norfolk

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Norfolk

Church of England Parish: Field Dalling St Andrew

Church of England Diocese: Norwich

Details

The monument includes the remains of a standing stone cross located within the
churchyard of St Andrew's Church, approximately 30m to the east of the church
and approximately 8m to the west of the east gateway. The cross, which is
Listed Grade II, is medieval in date and includes the two socket stones, one
above the other, and the remaining part of the shaft.

The lower socket stone, which is set into the ground, measures 0.25m high and
0.65m square at the base, rising through chamfered corners with stop angles to
an octagonal section on the surface. The upper socket stone which is mortared
to the lower one, measures 0.65m high by 0.55m square at the base, rising
through chamfered corners with defined stop angles to an octagonal section
with a moulded cornice on the surface. The shaft, which is set onto the upper
surface of the socket stone, measures 1.53m in height by 0.32m square at the
base, rising through chamfered corners to a tapering octagonal section. The
full height of the cross in its present form is 2.43m.

The tarmac pathway where it falls within the monument's protective margin is
excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath it is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

The cross in St Andrew's churchyard is a good example of a medieval standing
cross with two square to octagonal socket stones and a square to octagonal
shaft. Located to the east of the church and immediately to the west of the
eastern gateway to the churchyard it is believed to stand on or near to its
original position. The cross shows little evidence of restoration and has
continued in use as a public monument and amenity from medieval times to the
present day.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Cozens-Hardy, , 'Norfolk Archaeology' in Norfolk Crosses, , Vol. 25, (1935), 309

Source: Historic England

Other nearby scheduled monuments

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