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Cross in St Michael and All Angels' churchyard

A Scheduled Monument in Ingoldisthorpe, Norfolk

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.8656 / 52°51'56"N

Longitude: 0.5101 / 0°30'36"E

OS Eastings: 569061.248122

OS Northings: 332745.304458

OS Grid: TF690327

Mapcode National: GBR P3V.9RV

Mapcode Global: WHKPT.T72G

Entry Name: Cross in St Michael and All Angels' churchyard

Scheduled Date: 29 September 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1018315

English Heritage Legacy ID: 31130

County: Norfolk

Civil Parish: Ingoldisthorpe

Traditional County: Norfolk

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Norfolk

Church of England Parish: Ingoldisthorpe St Michael

Church of England Diocese: Norwich

Details

The monument includes the remains of a standing stone cross located within
the churchyard of St Michael and All Angels' Church, approximately 2m to the
south of the south porch. The cross, which is Listed Grade II, is medieval in
date and includes the rubble foundation, the socket stone and the lower part
of the shaft.

The rubble foundation is just visible beneath the socket stone. The socket
stone measures 0.88m square at the base and is 0.46m in height, rising through
chamfered corners with defined stop angles to an octagonal section with a
moulded cornice on the surface. The lower part of the shaft, which is mortised
diagonally into the socket stone and bonded with lead, stands to a height of
0.88m and is 0.34m square at the base, rising through chamfered corners to an
octagonal section. The shaft stands to a height of 0.88m. A simple cross is
incised into the surface of the shaft. The full height of the cross in its
present form is 1.34m.

The stone step leading to the church porch, where it falls within the
monument's protective margin to the north, is excluded from the scheduling,
although the ground beneath it is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

The churchyard cross at St Michael and All Angels' is a good example of a
medieval standing cross with a square to octagonal socket stone and a square
to octagonal shaft. Located immediately to the south of the south porch of the
church it is believed to stand on or near to its original position. The cross
shows no evidence of restoration and has continued in use as a public monument
and amenity from medieval times to the present day.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Cozens-Hardy, , 'Norfolk Archaeology' in Norfolk Crosses, , Vol. 25, (1935), 327

Source: Historic England

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