Ancient Monuments

History on the Ground

This site is entirely user-supported. See how you can help.

Wayside cross 160m north west of Stump Cross Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Haveringland, Norfolk

Approximate Location Map
Large Map »
Street or Overhead View
Contributor Photos »

If Google Street View is available, the image is from the best available vantage point looking, if possible, towards the location of the monument. Where it is not available, the satellite view is shown instead.

Coordinates

Latitude: 52.7441 / 52°44'38"N

Longitude: 1.1766 / 1°10'35"E

OS Eastings: 614515.439202

OS Northings: 321005.120799

OS Grid: TG145210

Mapcode National: GBR VDQ.Y10

Mapcode Global: WHLRW.19K5

Entry Name: Wayside cross 160m north west of Stump Cross Farm

Scheduled Date: 11 November 1954

Last Amended: 10 June 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1018301

English Heritage Legacy ID: 31136

County: Norfolk

Civil Parish: Haveringland

Traditional County: Norfolk

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Norfolk

Church of England Parish: Haveringland St Peter

Church of England Diocese: Norwich

Details

The monument includes the remains of a standing stone cross located on the
verge on the west side of the road which leads from Cawston to Norwich, 160m
north west of Stump Cross Farm on the boundary separating the parishes of
Haveringland to the east and Brandiston to the north. The cross is medieval in
date and includes the remains of the shaft.
The shaft is set into the ground and faces to the north and south. It is
rectangular in plan at the base and rises through chamfered corners to a
tapering octagonal section. At the base it measures 0.4m east-west by 0.3m
north-south tapering to 0.3m east-west by 0.23m north-south. The full height
of the cross in its present form is 1.38m.
The cross is marked on a 1738 map of Brandiston town land as `Stantlin Cross,'
and on another map about 100 years later as `Stump Cross'.
The fence to the south of the cross where it falls within the monument's
protective margin is excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath
it is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

The wayside cross 160m north west of Stump Cross Farm is a good example of a
medieval standing cross with a tapering octagonal shaft. It is believed to
stand in or near to its original position. Whilst most of the cross has
survived from medieval times subsequent restoration has resulted in its
continued function as a public monument and amenity.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Cozens-Hardy, , 'Norfolk Archaeology' in Norfolk Crosses, , Vol. 25, (1935), 303,313

Source: Historic England

Other nearby scheduled monuments

AncientMonuments.uk is an independent online resource and is not associated with any government department. All government data published here is used under licence. Please do not contact AncientMonuments.uk for any queries related to any individual ancient or schedued monument, planning permission related to scheduled monuments or the scheduling process itself.

AncientMonuments.uk is a Good Stuff website.