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Latitude: 53.4198 / 53°25'11"N
Longitude: -0.0362 / 0°2'10"W
OS Eastings: 530602.691999
OS Northings: 393239.263002
OS Grid: TF306932
Mapcode National: GBR XX5W.YT
Mapcode Global: WHHJL.F90N
Entry Name: Cross in St Andrew's churchyard
Scheduled Date: 18 September 1998
Source: Historic England
Source ID: 1018294
English Heritage Legacy ID: 22727
Civil Parish: Utterby
Built-Up Area: Utterby
Traditional County: Lincolnshire
Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Lincolnshire
Church of England Parish: Fotherby St Mary
Church of England Diocese: Lincoln
The monument includes the base, which takes the form of two steps and a
socket stone, of a Grade II Listed standing stone cross. The cross is located
in the churchyard of St Andrew's Church to the south east of the south porch.
The cross is medieval in date and is constructed of limestone.
The top and bottom steps are approximately square in section, measuring 1.6m
and 1.2m across respectively. Resting on the top step is the socket stone,
approximately 0.55m square in section and 0.45m high. Into the socket stone
would formerly have been fitted a shaft and cross head.
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
Source: Historic England
A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.
The remains of the churchyard cross at St Andrew's Church represent a good
example of a medieval standing cross with a stepped base. Situated to the
south east of the south door it is believed to stand in or near its original
position. Underlying archaeological deposits relating to its construction and
use in this location are likely to survive intact.
Source: Historic England
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