Ancient Monuments

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Standing cross in St Leonards churchyard

A Scheduled Monument in Frankley, Worcestershire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.4216 / 52°25'17"N

Longitude: -2.0029 / 2°0'10"W

OS Eastings: 399900.321823

OS Northings: 280398.140668

OS Grid: SO999803

Mapcode National: GBR 58Y.LT

Mapcode Global: VH9Z7.7DJG

Entry Name: Standing cross in St Leonards churchyard

Scheduled Date: 12 January 2000

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1017255

English Heritage Legacy ID: 30082

County: Worcestershire

Civil Parish: Frankley

Traditional County: Worcestershire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Worcestershire

Church of England Parish: Frankley

Church of England Diocese: Birmingham

Details

The monument includes the foundation, base, socket stone, shaft and the head
of the medieval standing cross, located 7.5m to the south of the east end of
the church in St Leonards churchyard. The cross, which is Listed Grade II, is
principally medieval in date with modern restorations and is believed to stand
in or near to its original position. The base is octagonal in plan and
measures 1.1m across and 0.3m high. The socket stone is also octagonal,
measuring 0.77m across and is at least 0.4m high. The shaft and head of the
cross are modern restorations, and the full height of the cross is over 2.5m.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

The standing cross in St Leonards churchyard is in or near its original
position, close to the chancel of the church. Used for a variety of religious
and secular activities, it acted as a landmark and focus throughout the Middle
Ages. Its survival and restoration demonstrates that it has continued to act
as a public amenity into the modern period.

Source: Historic England

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