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Roman period aggregate village on Coldsmouth Hill, 650m south east of St Ethelrede's Chapel

A Scheduled Monument in Kelso and District, Scottish Borders

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Latitude: 55.5551 / 55°33'18"N

Longitude: -2.2347 / 2°14'4"W

OS Eastings: 385294.222034

OS Northings: 629067.890473

OS Grid: NT852290

Mapcode National: GBR D4V6.0H

Mapcode Global: WH9ZD.NM2R

Entry Name: Roman period aggregate village on Coldsmouth Hill, 650m south east of St Ethelrede's Chapel

Scheduled Date: 15 April 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1015638

English Heritage Legacy ID: 29311

County: Scottish Borders

Electoral Ward: Kelso and District

Traditional County: Northumberland


The monument includes a Roman period aggregate village situated around the
north west slope of Coldsmouth Hill between the 180m and 200m contours. It
consists of ten enclosures, each scooped into the hillside and defined by
earth and stone banks. Five enclosures contain circular stone foundations of
prehistoric buildings. To the east of the most northerly settlement are traces
of linear banks, probably associated with a contemporary field system.
However, their extent and nature are not fully understood, hence they are not
included in the scheduling. Medieval ridge and furrow runs up to the north
east side of the village. It is also not included in the scheduling.
The most northerly settlement comprises two adjacent enclosures: north and
south. The southern enclosure, oval shaped, measures c.57m by 62m and is
enclosed by a bank up to 5m wide and 1.5m high with a clearly defined stone
kerb around its whole circuit; there is an entrance 2m wide in the east side.
On the south side the bank diminishes and the edge of the enclosure is marked
by a deep scoop; beyond this edge is a level area 4m-5m wide. On the south
east side there is an external ditch, 1.5m deep by 3m wide, which has the
appearance of a hollow way leading from the entrance to the level area above
the southern edge of the enclosure. Inside the enclosure the scooped edge runs
down to a rock outcrop and below is a roughly level area behind the entrance.
Two further platforms bear the remains of five stone founded hut circles 4m-8m
in diameter and up to 0.3m high. Along the north east section of the enclosure
bank three stone founded hut circles, 3m-5m in diameter and up to 0.3m high,
have been constructed within its width and are clearly secondary; all have a
south west entrance c.1m wide into the enclosure.
Abutting the north edge of the southern enclosure lies the second enclosure.
It is irregular in shape and consists of four scooped platforms; there is no
enclosing bank or single entrance into the settlement. On the level area
between the two enclosures on the west side there are traces of a possible
stone founded hut circle, 4m in diameter and 0.3m high. The most southerly
platform measures internally 23m east west by 6m north south and is scooped
to a depth of 3m on the south; it lies immediately against the first
enclosure and is separated from the next platform by a bank 1.5m wide and up
to 1m high. The second platform, roughly triangular in shape, measures 23m
east-west by 6m north-south and is scooped to a depth of 3m. Along the north
west edge of this scoop lies a spread bank of earth and stone, up to 7m wide,
which connects it with the third platform. This platform, roughly oval in
shape, measures 8m in diameter and is scooped to a depth of 1.5m; there is a
possible entrance 1m wide on the north east side. The fourth platform lies to
the east of the third and is 5m in diameter; there is no apparent entrance
between the two.
To the west of the settlement described above are a group of five scooped
enclosures, three of which are connected by an earth and stone bank. The most
northerly enclosure in the group is oval shaped and measures 46m north-south
by 26m east-west. It is defined by a bank 3m-5m wide and up to 0.3m high and
scooped to a maximum depth of 2m on the south. Around the north, west and
south sides of the enclosure are a series of large boulders which appear to
define a level platform or annexe up to 10m wide. Running south from the edge
of the enclosure is a linear bank c.73m long, 3m-4m wide and up to 0.5m high.
It runs toward the second oval scooped enclosure which measures 23m north-
south by 25m east-west and is defined on the north, east and west sides by a
bank, 3.5m wide and up to 0.5m high; this enclosure lies 50m SSW of the first
settlement described above. On the south the enclosure is scooped to a
maximum depth of 2m. There is a probable entrance 3m wide in the north side
which contains a large displaced boulder. Inside the enclosure, on the western
side, is an uneven sub circular platform, it measures 6m north-south by 8m
east-west and stands 1m high. There are stones visible on the surface which
may indicate a hut platform. In front of this enclosure, on the northern side,
a 4m wide platform is formed by the linear bank which turns westward and runs
for c.110m downhill to the third scooped enclosure. The linear bank has the
appearance of a terrace for the first 60m downhill, it measures an average 4m
wide and has stone visible on the northern edge possibly acting as revetting.
Beyond this the bank is more sinuous and measures 3m wide by 0.3m high;
several large stones are visible at intervals along its length. The bank runs
to the scooped edge of the third roughly oval shaped enclosure. It measures
29m north-south by 37m east-west and is defined by a bank spread up to 6m wide
and 0.3m high, except on the south east where it is scooped to a depth of 2m.
The enclosing bank turns inwards for c.5m on the south west forming a probable
entrance in the south side. Seventeen metres SSW of the third enclosure lies
another oval enclosure 27m north-south by 35m east-west. It is defined by an
earth and stone bank up to 5m wide and 0.4m high, except on the south west
where it is scooped to a depth of c.1.5m. These four enclosures are
interpreted as stock enclosures associated with the adjacent settlements. A
fifth enclosure lies 38m SSW of the fourth; sub oval in shape it measures 28m
by 37m with a slight projection on the north east side forming an irregular
shaped platform 7m by 6m. The enclosure is defined by a bank 2m-5m wide with a
maximum height of 2m and is enhanced by the natural slope. On the south east
it is scooped up to 5m deep and there is a probable entrance 4m wide in the
south west side. Inside the enclosure the ground is uneven with evidence of
two possible hut circles, each c.8m in diameter. One lies on a platform near
the southern edge of the scoop and is composed of large irregular boulders,
the second lies in the bottom of the scoop. Beyond the entrance, to the west,
runs a deep hollow with the appearance of a hollow way; it measures up to 1.5m
deep by 3m wide.
The hollow way continues westward as a trackway 3m wide and runs past
another settlement which consists of one double and two single enclosures
along the 180m contour; it appears to be contemporary. The trackway is
slightly terraced into the hillside, its western edge marked by a bank 2m wide
and up to 1m high. The trackway is aligned roughly north south and passes 8m
west of the first enclosure, runs against the western bank of the second,
double, enclosure and appears to run through the most southerly enclosure. The
first enclosure in this settlement, sub-circular in shape, measures 23m in
diameter and is enclosed by a bank 4m wide and up to 0.4m high internally,
enhanced by the natural slope externally. On the south east side the enclosure
is scooped to a maximum depth of 5m. There is an entrance 2m wide in the north
east side. Internally, there are two possible hut circles each 3m in diameter.
About 12m south lies a double enclosure which overall measures 59m north-south
by 34m east west. It consists of two sub oval shaped areas, roughly equal in
size, scooped into the hillside to a depth of 5m on the east side. On the
remaining sides they are enclosed by an earth and stone bank 2m wide and 0.5m
high internally, enhanced by the natural slope externally; the two areas are
separated by a bank 20m long, 4m wide and 1m high. The northern area has an
entrance 2m wide in the north side and to the east there are two hut circles
built into the bank, each 3m in diameter. The southern area is subdivided in
the north west by a slight bank and has an entrance 2.5m wide in the south
side. From the southern edge of the enclosure a field bank runs south for 15m
then turns at right angles and runs east, uphill, for 30m. The bank is 2m wide
by 0.5m high with massive kerb stones along its southern edge and appears to
be contemporary with the settlement. Eleven metres to the south west lies a
third enclosure, oval in shape, it measures 32m by 19m and is enclosed by a
bank on the west which is spread to 4m wide and stands up to 0.5m high; on the
east the enclosure is scooped to a maximum depth of 3m. On the south west side
a hut circle platform, 10m in diameter with kerb stones, forms a blister or
adjunct to the bank. A large stone on the south side may mark the position of
an entrance. This group is interpreted as a farmstead with stock enclosures
and field boundary and a possible associated trackway or droveway.
Two fence posts in the most northerly of the three enclosures connected by
the linear bank are excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath is

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The Roman period aggregate village on Coldsmouth Hill is well preserved and
will contain significant archaeological deposits. The settlement is situated
within an area of clustered archaeological sites of high quality and forms
part of a wider archaeological landscape in the Cheviots. The grouping of
several contemporary settlements and stock enclosures to form a village along
with trackways and a field boundary will contribute to any study of the wider
settlement pattern during this period.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana' in A note on scooped enclosures in Northumberland, , Vol. 40, (1962), 47-58
Newcastle University AP Collection, Gates, T, NT/8529/C, (1982)
NT 82 NE 35,
NT 82 NE 36,

Source: Historic England

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