Ancient Monuments

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Churchyard cross in All Saints' churchyard

A Scheduled Monument in Broomfield, Somerset

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Latitude: 51.0821 / 51°4'55"N

Longitude: -3.1087 / 3°6'31"W

OS Eastings: 322431.472138

OS Northings: 132008.530397

OS Grid: ST224320

Mapcode National: GBR M1.D076

Mapcode Global: FRA 46C8.BP7

Entry Name: Churchyard cross in All Saints' churchyard

Scheduled Date: 20 March 1967

Last Amended: 21 February 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1015456

English Heritage Legacy ID: 28821

County: Somerset

Civil Parish: Broomfield

Traditional County: Somerset

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Somerset


The monument includes a standing cross situated in the churchyard, c.6m south
of the Church of All Saints', Broomfield.
The cross is supported by a flat stone slab on which sits a socket stone and
shaft with decorated terminal. The stone slab is 0.9m square and flush with
the ground surface. The socket stone has a square base with convex
broaches at its corners forming an octagonal top. The base of the socket stone
measures 0.85m across and has a total height of 0.6m. Each side of the
octagonal top measures 0.4m. The socket for the shaft, in the centre of the
upper surface of the socket stone, is 0.35m square. The 2.5m high shaft,
square at the bottom, tapers with collared shafts running up each corner. It
becomes octagonal in section for its top 0.3m, surmounted by an elaborate
octagonal terminal which once supported a head. This is now missing.
There is a slightly raised area of grass around the cross, and, on probing,
stone was felt under the surface to a depth of c.0.2m and at a distance of
0.5m from the supporting slab. It is thought that this represents part of a
buried calvary. The cross is dated to the late 13th century and is Listed
Grade II*.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Although the head of the cross is lost, the standing cross in the churchyard
at Broomfield survives well as a visually impressive monument of the medieval
period in what is likely to be its original location. The medieval cross
relates to the 14th century Church of All Saints'.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Pooley, C, Old Stone Crosses of Somerset, (1877), 4-5

Source: Historic England

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