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Roman fort and prehistoric enclosed settlement 400m west of Carkin Moor Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Carkin, North Yorkshire

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Latitude: 54.4704 / 54°28'13"N

Longitude: -1.7525 / 1°45'9"W

OS Eastings: 416135.613318

OS Northings: 508368.872182

OS Grid: NZ161083

Mapcode National: GBR JJ6R.C7

Mapcode Global: WHC60.1WRR

Entry Name: Roman fort and prehistoric enclosed settlement 400m west of Carkin Moor Farm

Scheduled Date: 14 July 1966

Last Amended: 14 February 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1015418

English Heritage Legacy ID: 28289

County: North Yorkshire

Civil Parish: Carkin

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): North Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: Forcett with Aldborough and Melsonby

Church of England Diocese: Leeds


The monument includes a Roman fort, an adjacent prehistoric enclosed
settlement and the intervening archaeologically sensitive area situated on
Carkin Moor at the east end of Teesdale.
The fort lies on the summit of a small flat-topped hill and is bisected in a
deep cutting by the A66, a former Roman road, which runs east-west across the
Pennines. The Roman fort is one of a series of Roman military establishments
along this route. The fort is rectangular in shape and measures 150m north
east to south west by 132m north west to south east. The north east corner of
the fort survives as a raised platform up to 2m high in the field to the north
of the road. The north angle of the fort and traces of an external ditch are
clearly visible as earthworks in the plantation north of the road. To the
south of the road the fort no longer survives as an upstanding earthwork
although its extent is clearly visible on aerial photographs. Extensive
remains will survive here beneath the modern ground surface.
The prehistoric enclosed settlement lies 200m north west of the fort. Although
it no longer survives as an earthwork it is clearly visible on aerial
The enclosure is rectangular in shape and measures 100m by 75m. There are
traces of internal features visible within it which include traces of one
side of a smaller enclosure parallel with the western side.
There are several other similar enclosures identified by aerial photography in
north east England. Excavations at one such site 3km to the south east
demonstrated it to be an Iron Age farmstead with circular buildings within the
enclosure. The example at Carkin Moor would have been broadly similar.
All modern fences and walls are excluded from the scheduling although the
ground beneath them is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Roman forts served as permanent bases for auxiliary units of the Roman Army.
In outline they were straight sided rectangular enclosures with rounded
corners, defined by a single rampart of turf, puddled clay or earth with one
or more outer ditches. Some forts had separately defended, subsidiary
enclosures or annexes, allowing additional storage space or for the
accommodation of troops and convoys in transit. Although built and used
throughout the Roman period, the majority of forts were constructed between
the mid first and mid second centuries AD. Some were only used for short
periods of time but others were occupied for extended periods on a more or
less permanent basis. In the earlier forts, timber was used for gateways,
towers and breastworks. From the beginning of the second century AD there was
a gradual replacement of timber with stone.
Roman forts are rare nationally and are extremely rare south of the Severn
Trent line. As one of a small group of Roman military monuments, which are
important in representing army strategy and therefore government policy, forts
are of particular significance to our understanding of the period. All Roman
forts with surviving archaeological potential are considered to be nationally

Rectangular prehistoric enclosures are a discrete area of land given over to a
particular purpose. They often served as protected areas for crop growing or
as stock pens although in this area of northern England monuments of this
nature have also been found to enclose circular domestic buildings and
associated agricultural structures. The size and form of enclosures may vary
depending on their particular function. Their variation in form and
relationship to other monument classes provide important information on the
diversity of social organisation and farming practices amongst prehistoric
Although partly disturbed, the Roman fort still survives in places as an
earthwork and elsewhere significant archaeological remains will be preserved
below ground. Important information about the internal arrangements will be
preserved and as part of a network of forts in the north of England the
monument offers scope for the study of the wider Roman military and
administrative occupation of Britain. The prehistoric enclosure is clearly
visible on aerial photographs and the site will retain evidence of how and
when it was used and in particular its relationship with the adjacent fort.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Fitts, R L , 'Durham Archaeological Journal' in An Iron Age Farmstead at Rock Castle Gilling West North Yorks, , Vol. VOL 10, (1994), 13-42
CUC BB22, DP 13 W56, W59,
Yorkshire Dales Nat Park SMR/RCHME MORPH data,

Source: Historic England

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