Ancient Monuments

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Wayside cross known as Stump Cross in Mount Ephraim Plantation

A Scheduled Monument in Feltwell, Norfolk

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Latitude: 52.4914 / 52°29'28"N

Longitude: 0.6109 / 0°36'39"E

OS Eastings: 577355.58509

OS Northings: 291366.09441

OS Grid: TL773913

Mapcode National: GBR Q9R.Z3Y

Mapcode Global: VHJFG.JMTZ

Entry Name: Wayside cross known as Stump Cross in Mount Ephraim Plantation

Scheduled Date: 11 March 1964

Last Amended: 23 December 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1015262

English Heritage Legacy ID: 21432

County: Norfolk

Civil Parish: Feltwell

Traditional County: Norfolk

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Norfolk

Church of England Parish: Weeting St Mary

Church of England Diocese: Ely


The monument includes the medieval wayside cross known as Stump Cross which
stands in a clearing in Mount Ephraim Plantation c.290m west of Pilgrim's Walk
and c.70m south east of another old road used as a public path and bridleway.
The cross is of Barnack stone and includes a shaft supported on a socket
stone. The socket stone stands 0.4m above the ground and is 0.73m square in
section at the base, with carved broach stops, now heavily weathered, and
three orders of octagonal moulding on the upper surface. The base, which is
buried below the ground surface, includes a step. The shaft is square in cross
section with roll moulding at the angles and is set diagonally to the square
of the socket stone. It stands c.1.8m tall above the upper surface of the
socket stone and measures 0.31m across at the base, tapering gradually. The
head of the cross is missing. The shaft formerly lay in two pieces on this
site and was repaired and re-erected c.1958.

The cross has been identified as that described by Tom Martin in 1720 as
standing in two parts on either side of a road on a hill between Broomhill and
Methwold, and according to Blomefield it stood beside the Walsingham Way
(Pilgrim's Walk).

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the
medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to
serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith
amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside
crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and
otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes
linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious
function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners
and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on
Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west
England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type
of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively
few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to
remote moorland locations.
Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross,
in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an
unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and
decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces
of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or
incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was
sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear
decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the
`Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both
faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the
North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed
base or show no evidence for a separate base at all.
Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval
religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval
routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth-
fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from
their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

Stump Cross is a fine and well preserved example of a medieval wayside cross
embellished with some unusual architectural detail, and its association with
the old pilgrim road gives it additional interest and significance. Although
it has been repaired in modern times, it is believed to stand near its
original position, and it is likely that archaeological deposits relating to
its construction and use on this site will survive in the area immediately
around and beneath it.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Blomefield, F, An Essay towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk, (1805), 173
Cozens-Hardy, , 'Norfolk Archaeology' in Norfolk Crosses, , Vol. 25, (1935), 329
AM7 NF 72, (1958)

Source: Historic England

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