This site is entirely user-supported. See how you can help.
If Google Street View is available, the image is from the best available vantage point looking, if possible, towards the location of the monument. Where it is not available, the satellite view is shown instead.
Latitude: 53.1048 / 53°6'17"N
Longitude: 0.1961 / 0°11'45"E
OS Eastings: 547112.351999
OS Northings: 358653.508001
OS Grid: TF471586
Mapcode National: GBR LXW.8DY
Mapcode Global: WHJMC.Z7J4
Entry Name: Churchyard cross, St Mary's churchyard
Scheduled Date: 22 May 1996
Source: Historic England
Source ID: 1015162
English Heritage Legacy ID: 22704
Civil Parish: Wainfleet St Mary
Traditional County: Lincolnshire
Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Lincolnshire
Church of England Parish: Wainfleet St Mary
Church of England Diocese: Lincoln
The monument includes the remains of a standing stone cross located in the
churchyard of St Mary's Church, Wainfleet St Mary, to the south east of the
south porch. The cross, which is also Listed Grade II, is medieval in date and
is constructed of limestone. The monument includes the base of the cross and
the lower part of the shaft.
The base takes the form of a socket stone, the upper face of which is
partly buried beneath the present ground surface and measures about 0.75m
square in section. The remainder of the base is buried. Fitted into the
socket stone with a metal band is the lower part of the shaft, rectangular in
section at the base and rising above moulded and chamfered corners in tapering
octagonal section to a height of 1.02m. At the top of the stone, which is
flat, are the remains of an iron pin and clamps which formerly fixed this part
of the shaft to an upper stone and cross head.
The monument includes a 1m boundary around the cross which is essential for
the monument's support and preservation.
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
Source: Historic England
A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.
The remains of the churchyard cross at St Mary's Church, Wainfleet St Mary,
represent a good example of a medieval standing cross with a quadrangular base
and octagonal shaft. Situated to the south east of the south porch it is
believed to stand in its original position. Minimal disturbance of the area
immediately surrounding the cross indicates that archaeological deposits
relating to the monument's construction and use are likely to survive intact.
Source: Historic England
Other nearby scheduled monuments