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Medieval standing cross 6m north east of St Martin's Church

A Scheduled Monument in Cheselbourne, Dorset

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Latitude: 50.7955 / 50°47'43"N

Longitude: -2.3388 / 2°20'19"W

OS Eastings: 376219.41348

OS Northings: 99602.961849

OS Grid: SY762996

Mapcode National: GBR 0YP.3HL

Mapcode Global: FRA 56ZZ.QNP

Entry Name: Medieval standing cross 6m north east of St Martin's Church

Scheduled Date: 12 January 1962

Last Amended: 18 November 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1015034

English Heritage Legacy ID: 27434

County: Dorset

Civil Parish: Cheselbourne

Built-Up Area: Cheselbourne

Traditional County: Dorset

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Dorset

Church of England Parish: Cheselborne St Martin

Church of England Diocese: Salisbury


The monument includes a standing cross c.6m to the north east of the north
porch of St Martin's Church within the churchyard.
The 15th century cross has two steps surmounted by a socket stone which
supports a cross shaft. The bottom step, a maximum of 2.4m square and 0.8m
high, consists of four courses of limestone, contrasting with the Ham stone of
the top and bottom courses. The lower part is moulded and chamfered while the
upper course is overhanging. The upper step is a maximum of 1.6m square and
0.74m high and consists mostly of a single stone capped with a moulded piece
of Ham stone which is overhanging. The socket stone is a single piece of Ham
stone on a single course of chamfered stone and is a maximum of 0.96m square
and 0.5m high. The cross shaft with moulded corners, set diagonally in the
socket stone, is 0.34m square at the base, tapering towards the top, and 1.33m
The cross is Listed Grade II.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Despite the fact that the head has been removed, the medieval standing cross
6m north east of St Martin's church is well preserved and, surviving in its
original position, remains an important example of its class.

Source: Historic England

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