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St Warna's Well, St Agnes

A Scheduled Monument in St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly

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Latitude: 49.8889 / 49°53'19"N

Longitude: -6.3448 / 6°20'41"W

OS Eastings: 88037.173973

OS Northings: 7791.86

OS Grid: SV880077

Mapcode National: GBR BXQZ.8LC

Mapcode Global: VGYC9.Z231

Entry Name: St Warna's Well, St Agnes

Scheduled Date: 4 October 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1015001

English Heritage Legacy ID: 15454

County: Isles of Scilly

Civil Parish: St. Agnes

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Isles of Scilly

Church of England Diocese: Truro


The monument includes a ritual well known as St Warna's Well on the south west
coastal margin of St Agnes, the south western inhabited island in the Isles of
The ritual well is situated in a large natural coastal hollow, which rises to
the south and east of the monument, focussing the ground water that supplies
the well. The well itself survives with a small sub-circular bedrock chamber,
approximately 0.9m in diameter and 1m high, opening on the west at a narrow
entrance gap, 0.6m wide. The chamber floor has relatively recent rubble
deposits in the water. The chamber extends down from the ground surface and is
roofed by a large flat slab, 0.2m thick, covered by turf and embedded into the
surrounding soil on all sides except over the entrance. From the chamber
entrance, three stone steps, each 0.25m high, rise north westward along a
narrow channel from the chamber floor to the ground surface; this stepped
channel is 0.65m wide, revetted on each side by vertical drystone walling of
roughly coursed granite slabs and rubble, largely masked by vegetation on the
south west side. The chamber and its stepped approach channel are enclosed
within a sub-circular setting of small spaced slabs, up to 0.3m high and set
on edge in several cases. This setting, 2.75m in diameter, is visible on the
surface around the north and east sides of the well, with the largest slabs
projecting from the turf over the eastern part of the chamber.
The well's dedication to `Saint Warna', for which an earlier form `Awana' is
recorded, is mentioned by Heath in 1750 who describes this individual as a
beneficiary in times of distress, most notoriously by attracting wrecks to the
island's shores. Heath records this well and its dedication, noting that it
formed a focus for ritual activities among some islanders, including regular
cleaning of the well chamber; a later account records a tradition that another
ritual involved throwing crooked pins into the well to invoke the `saint's'
actions on their behalf. Certainly by the 1890s, when the well was again
described and also photographed, such activities had long ceased and had
passed into folklore.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The Isles of Scilly, the westernmost of the granite masses of south west
England, contain a remarkable abundance and variety of archaeological remains
from over 4000 years of human activity. The remote physical setting of the
islands, over 40km beyond the mainland in the approaches to the English
Channel, has lent a distinctive character to those remains, producing many
unusual features important for our broader understanding of the social
development of early communities.
Throughout the human occupation there has been a gradual submergence of the
islands' land area, providing a stimulus to change in the environment and its
exploitation. This process has produced evidence for responses to such change
against an independent time-scale, promoting integrated studies of
archaeological, environmental and linguistic aspects of the islands'
The islands' archaeological remains demonstrate clearly the gradually
expanding size and range of contacts of their communities. By the post-
medieval period (from AD 1540), the islands occupied a nationally strategic
location, resulting in an important concentration of defensive works
reflecting the development of fortification methods and technology from the
mid 16th to the 20th centuries. An important and unusual range of post-
medieval monuments also reflects the islands' position as a formidable hazard
for the nation's shipping in the western approaches.
The exceptional preservation of the archaeological remains on the islands has
long been recognised, producing an unusually full and detailed body of
documentation, including several recent surveys.

Ritual wells are water sources with specifically spiritual or religious
associations. The custom of venerating springs and wells as sacred sites is
known to have characterised pre-Christian religions in Britain: examples are
known dating back to at least the Bronze Age (c.2000 - 700 BC). By the Iron
Age (c.700 BC - AD 43), the use of wells as sacred sites by Celtic tribes is
attested by Classical Roman authors, and further examples have been excavated
in Britain from the Roman period (AD 43 - 400). Both excavated evidence and
the historical sources confirm that the use of ritual wells commonly involved
the deposition of votive offerings to invoke the sympathetic actions of the
spirit to whom the well was dedicated. Although Christian holy wells have been
identified from the sixth century AD, it is clear that some of those holy
wells originated as earlier sacred sites and were transposed, with an
appropriate re-dedication, into Christian usage. Sometimes this transfer
appears to have occurred complete with a `sainthood' bestowed on the former
spirit, and a continuation of the accompanying votive rituals. The cult of
Christian holy wells continued throughout the medieval period. Its
condemnation at the Reformation (c.1540) ended new foundations but local
reverence and folklore customs at existing holy wells often continued, in some
cases inspiring modern revivals of such traditions.

This monument survives in good condition and, as distinct from the numerous
secular wells for domestic water supply, it is the only surviving ritual well,
Christian or otherwise, on the Isles of Scilly. The stone setting around the
well is an unusual feature, but the monument as a whole is a very rare
survival of an intact ritual well with surface remains and historically
attested observances yet lacking any known formal Christian dedication. The
record of the ritual observances at this monument is also sufficiently
detailed to illustrate the manner in which ritual wells served their
communities' spiritual needs.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Arlott, J, Island Camera, (1983)
Heath, R, A Natural and Historical Account of the Isles of Scilly, (1750)
Quiller Couch, L, Quiller Couch, M, Ancient and Holy Wells of Cornwall, (1894)
Thomas, C, Exploration of a Drowned Landscape, (1985)
Clayton, J, 'Arch Aeliana (2nd Ser)' in The Temple Of Coventina At Carrawburgh, , Vol. 8, (1880), 1-49
Title: 1:2500 Ordnance Survey Map; SV 8807
Source Date: 1980

Waters, A/CAU, AM 107 for Scilly SMR entry PRN 7012, (1988)

Source: Historic England

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