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Prehistoric settlement and field system on Little Ganilly

A Scheduled Monument in St. Martin's, Isles of Scilly

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Coordinates

Latitude: 49.9496 / 49°56'58"N

Longitude: -6.2688 / 6°16'7"W

OS Eastings: 93883.582419

OS Northings: 14227.814173

OS Grid: SV938142

Mapcode National: GBR BXXT.7F2

Mapcode Global: VGYBZ.9J9H

Entry Name: Prehistoric settlement and field system on Little Ganilly

Scheduled Date: 16 November 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1014788

English Heritage Legacy ID: 15441

County: Isles of Scilly

Civil Parish: St. Martin's

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Isles of Scilly

Church of England Diocese: Truro

Details

The monument includes a prehistoric settlement containing two small hut
circles on the upper boundary of a contemporary field system on the NNE
coastal slope of Little Ganilly, one of the uninhabited Eastern Isles, south
east of St Martin's in the Isles of Scilly.
The prehistoric field system adjoining the settlement is visible as the
subrectangular upper end of a single field plot on the island's coastal
margin, with one side wall extending a little further uphill, forming the
surviving upper edge of a more extensive regular field system that has been
largely truncated by the gradual submergence of the Isles of Scilly.
The field plot survives up to 23m long, NNE-SSW and truncated at its northern
edge at the coastal cliff, by 22.5m wide along its uppermost southern bank. It
is defined by turf-covered rubble banks, generally 1m-2m wide and 0.5m high,
incorporating spaced blocks and edge-set slabs up to 0.75m high. The side
banks converge slightly as they rise the slope, and meet the upper bank at
rounded corners. The plot's eastern bank is extended up the slope for a
further 14m beyond the plot's upper corner by a more diffuse rubble bank, up
to 3m wide and 0.6m high with some blocks along its line, but fading into the
slope at its upper end.
The two small hut circles adjoin the upper side of the plot's upper bank near
its western end. They also adjoin each other; each is ovoid in plan and has
been levelled into the northern face of a prominent natural hummock on the
hillslope.
The interior of the eastern hut circle measures 4.7m north west-south east by
3.75m north east-south west. Its rear scarp rises 1.3m high on the south west,
cut into the face of the natural hummock. On the north and north east, the
interior is defined by a northward bulge in the plot's upper bank; a break on
the south east between that bank and the face of the hummock is considered to
mark the entrance, marked on its northern side by a prominent edge-set slab,
1.5m long and 0.4m high, set in the plot's bank.
The western hut circle, above the plot's upper western corner, measures 7.5m
ENE-WSW by 4m NNW-SSE internally. Its rear scarp rises to 2m high on the
south, cut into the hummock. The north and north eastern sides of the interior
are defined by the plot wall with no obvious entrance and a scarp 0.4m high
dropping down to the plot interior.
Although this monument contains the only known prehistoric remains on Little
Ganilly, its broader contemporary landscape context is shown by the nearby
surviving remains of prehistoric settlements, field systems and funerary
cairns on the Arthurs to the south and on Great Ganilly and Nornour to the
east; when these monuments functioned, those islands formed the eastern part
of the single land mass of Scilly prior to the submergence of the land in
between.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The Isles of Scilly, the westernmost of the granite masses of south west
England, contain a remarkable abundance and variety of archaeological remains
from over 4000 years of human activity. The remote physical setting of the
islands, over 40km beyond the mainland in the approaches to the English
Channel, has lent a distinctive character to those remains, producing many
unusual features important for our broader understanding of the social
development of early communities.
Throughout the human occupation there has been a gradual submergence of the
islands' land area, providing a stimulus to change in the environment and its
exploitation. This process has produced evidence for responses to such change
against an independent time-scale, promoting integrated studies of
archaeological, environmental and linguistic aspects of the islands'
settlement.
The islands' archaeological remains demonstrate clearly the gradually
expanding size and range of contacts of their communities. By the post-
medieval period (from AD 1540), the islands occupied a nationally strategic
location, resulting in an important concentration of defensive works
reflecting the development of fortification methods and technology from the
mid 16th to the 20th centuries. An important and unusual range of post-
medieval monuments also reflects the islands' position as a formidable hazard
for the nation's shipping in the western approaches.
The exceptional preservation of the archaeological remains on the islands has
long been recognised, producing an unusually full and detailed body of
documentation, including several recent surveys.
Regular field systems are one of several methods of field layout known to have
been employed in the Isles of Scilly from the Bronze Age to the Roman period
(c.2000 BC - AD 400); closer dating within that period may be provided by the
visible relationships of the field boundaries to other classes of monument
with a shorter known time-span of use, or by their relationship with an
earlier recorded sea level.
They comprise a collection of field plots defined by boundaries laid out in a
consistent manner, along two dominant axes at approximate right angles to each
other. This results in rectilinear fields which may vary in their size and
length:width ratio both within and between individual field systems. The
fields are bounded by rubble walls or banks, often incorporating edge- or end-
set slabs called orthostats. Within its total area, a regular field system may
be subdivided into blocks differing in the orientations of their dominant
axes.
Regular field systems may be associated with broadly contemporary settlement
sites such as stone hut circles. Some regular field systems on the Isles of
Scilly contain a distinctive association, rarely encountered elsewhere,
whereby certain of their field boundaries directly incorporate or link cairns,
entrance graves and cists in some groups of prehistoric funerary monuments.
Although no precise figure is available, regular field systems form one of the
three principal forms of prehistoric field system, along with irregular field
systems and some groups of prehistoric linear boundaries, which survive in
over 70 areas of the Isles of Scilly. They provide significant insights into
the physical and social organisation of past landscapes and they provide
evidence for the wider contemporary context within which other nationally
important monuments were constructed.

The prehistoric settlement on Little Ganilly survives well, without any known
disturbance, preserving its integral relationship with the contemporary field
system. Although truncated by rising sea levels, the surviving sector of this
field system provides valuable evidence for the nature and extent of
prehistoric land use in the now largely submerged terrain that formed the
contemporary landscape of the important group of prehistoric settlements,
field systems and funerary monuments nearby on the other Eastern Isles.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
Ratcliffe, J & Sharpe, A/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7703.01, (1991)
Ratcliffe, J & Sharpe, A/CAU, Scilly SMR entry for PRN 7703.02, (1991)
Title: 1:10000 Ordnance Survey Map; SV 91 SW
Source Date: 1980
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Source: Historic England

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