Ancient Monuments

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Roman period native farmstead 320m north east of Longknowe

A Scheduled Monument in Kilham, Northumberland

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Latitude: 55.5729 / 55°34'22"N

Longitude: -2.2051 / 2°12'18"W

OS Eastings: 387165.57549

OS Northings: 631039.644463

OS Grid: NT871310

Mapcode National: GBR F410.D3

Mapcode Global: WH9ZF.3673

Entry Name: Roman period native farmstead 320m north east of Longknowe

Scheduled Date: 24 July 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1014774

English Heritage Legacy ID: 24649

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Kilham

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Kirknewton St Gregory

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle


The monument includes the remains of a Roman period native farmstead lying in
a valley beneath the slopes of Longknowe Hill to the south east and Whaup Moor
to the west. The farmstead is situated on the edge of a river terrace above a
stream. It is oval in shape and measures 37m north-south by 32m east-west and
is enclosed by an earth and stone bank which measures up to 6m wide and stands
0.2m-1m high. The bank is very slight on the south west side but on the east
the height of the bank is enhanced externally by the river terrace and stands
2m high. There is an entrance on the north east side which measures c.2m wide.
On the east side of the entrance the bank curves away forming a spur running
for a distance of 14m. In the south west part of the enclosure is a raised
platform which stands up to 0.5m high. It contains the remains of a hut circle
7m in diameter and up to 0.2m high. Across the north west side the farmstead
is bisected by a modern road. Its surface is excluded from the scheduling, but
the ground beneath is included. A telegraph pole on the north west side of the
monument is also excluded, although the ground beneath it is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The Roman period native farmstead 320m north east of Longknowe is well
preserved and will contain significant archaeological deposits. The settlement
is situated within an area of clustered archaeological sites of high quality
and forms part of a wider archaeological landscape. It will contribute to the
study of the broader settlement pattern during this period.

Source: Historic England


NT 83 SE 4,

Source: Historic England

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