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Village cross 50m south of Middle Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Barrow, Rutland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.7267 / 52°43'36"N

Longitude: -0.6825 / 0°40'56"W

OS Eastings: 489074.099717

OS Northings: 315158.603358

OS Grid: SK890151

Mapcode National: GBR DSD.28Z

Mapcode Global: WHGLF.HQ7G

Entry Name: Village cross 50m south of Middle Farm

Scheduled Date: 28 January 1953

Last Amended: 15 May 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1014519

English Heritage Legacy ID: 21655

County: Rutland

Civil Parish: Barrow

Traditional County: Rutland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Rutland

Church of England Parish: Cottesmore, Barrow St Nicholas

Church of England Diocese: Peterborough

Details

The monument includes the village cross 150m south of Middle Farm, a standing
stone cross located on a grassed bank at the junction of two roads. The cross
is Listed Grade II and takes the form of a base, a socket stone and part of a
shaft, all of which are late medieval in date with some modern repairs.
The base is approximately 1.9m square in plan and is constructed of at least
four courses of ashlar blocks. The socket stone rests on this base and is an
undecorated stone cube, 0.73m square and 0.5m high. Set into the socket stone
is the lower part of a stone shaft, which is also square in section. The shaft
has been strengthened in recent times with the addition of tie bars. The
surviving height of the cross is 2.09m.
The surface of the road and the modern kerbstones adjoining the cross are
excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

The village cross 150m south of Middle Farm is a good example of a medieval
standing cross which is believed to stand in its original position. Limited
activity in the area immediately surrounding the cross indicates that
archaeological deposits relating to the monument's construction and use are
likely to survive intact. Whilst most of the cross survives from medieval
times, subsequent restoration of the base and the shaft illustrate its
continued function as a public monument and amenity.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
Leicestershire Sites and Mnouments Record, 81 NE.R, (1950)

Source: Historic England

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