Ancient Monuments

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Central of three duck decoys on Walton Moor, south of Lord Bath's Drove

A Scheduled Monument in Walton, Somerset

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Latitude: 51.1007 / 51°6'2"N

Longitude: -2.7762 / 2°46'34"W

OS Eastings: 345746.745429

OS Northings: 133771.627641

OS Grid: ST457337

Mapcode National: GBR MH.BSKQ

Mapcode Global: VH7DT.TLPL

Entry Name: Central of three duck decoys on Walton Moor, south of Lord Bath's Drove

Scheduled Date: 6 March 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1014449

English Heritage Legacy ID: 27970

County: Somerset

Civil Parish: Walton

Traditional County: Somerset

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Somerset


The monument includes a 19th century four-pipe duck decoy on Walton Moor. The
decoy was originally surrounded by a rectangular enclosure rhyne. This has
been infilled on three sides, its line now denoted by waterlogging around the
edge of an area of mature woodland. To the south, the rhyne is part of a
drainage system for the surrounding land. In the middle of the woodland is an
almost square pool, 35m by 40m, which has a large low central island accessed
by a footbridge to the south west.
There are substantial banks surrounding the pool, standing 0.75m-1.2m above
the water level, showing evidence of recent pond clearance which would have
enhanced their height. The four decoy pipes, shown to be extending to the
east and west from the four corners of the pond on a map of 1886, have been
infilled but can be traced by differences in topography and vegetation.
Generally visible as curving water-logged hollow ways, they are separated from
the pond by scrub growth and banked material.
To the south a channel 1m-2m wide has been cut from the pool to the current
drain and is spanned by a footbridge.
This is one of three decoys planned in 1823 by the Marquis of Bath; to the
north of this decoy is Lord Bath's Drove. Rented to the Admiral V Hickley of
Taunton from 1868-82, the average total takings of fowl from the three decoys
was 1200, varying from 3000 in 1868/9, to 175 in 1874/5. This decoy was leased
by Payne-Gallwey, an authority on decoy ponds, in the 1880s. The area is
currently used for shooting and has been cleaned out a number of times in the
Excluded from the scheduling are all modern fences, posts and footbridges,
although the ground beneath is excluded. The enclosure rhyne, to the south is
also excluded from the scheduling.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Decoy ponds are artificially created or modified pools of water onto which
wildfowl were lured to be trapped and killed for food and for feathers. They
consist of a central pool off which lead a number of curving arms or ditches,
known as pipes. Nets were constructed over the narrowing ends of these pipes
towards which the birds were lured by the decoyman and his dog. Screens were
erected along the sides of the pipes with carefully placed gaps so that the
dog would be visible to the birds only when his appearance would lead the
birds towards the nets at the ends of the pipes. Once at the ends the nets
would be dropped and the decoyman was able to wring the birds' necks.
The tradition of constructing such ponds appears to have begun in the medieval
period, with the simplest designs indicating an early date. The more familiar
decoy pond, however, is said to have originated in Holland and to have been
introduced into England in the 17th century. The word `decoy' is said to
derive from the Dutch `eendenkooi' meaning `duck cage'. Their greatest
popularity came in the 18th and 19th centuries when large numbers were built,
with a small number continuing in use until World War II. The ideal size for a
decoy pond was between 1ha and 5ha with a depth of water of not more than a
metre. The number of pipes varies from one to more than five, often arranged
in symmetrical patterns around the central pool. Although once common features
of lowland England (being particularly associated with the east and south east
coasts), modern drainage has modified or destroyed all but a few examples.
Most examples which survive in a near-complete state of preservation will be
considered of national importance and worthy of protection.

The decoy on Walton Moor survives as a good example of its type, and is one of
three decoys on Walton Moor representing an unusual grouping. It lies within
the Somerset Levels and Moors, a wetland area of high archaeological value
which has seen rapid landscape change over the past 200 years as a result of
drainage and peat cutting.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Ley, IB, Somerset Duck Decoys, (1977), 19
'Downside Review' in Downside Review, Volume 5, (1886), 218-224
Title: Ordnance Survey Map, 1886
Source Date: 1886
Card 63/1

Source: Historic England

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