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Monastic grange at Haseley Manor

A Scheduled Monument in Arreton, Isle of Wight

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.6683 / 50°40'5"N

Longitude: -1.2276 / 1°13'39"W

OS Eastings: 454681.249164

OS Northings: 85685.09169

OS Grid: SZ546856

Mapcode National: GBR 9DB.2GB

Mapcode Global: FRA 8799.RK9

Entry Name: Monastic grange at Haseley Manor

Scheduled Date: 2 January 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1014286

English Heritage Legacy ID: 22033

County: Isle of Wight

Civil Parish: Arreton

Traditional County: Hampshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Isle of Wight

Church of England Parish: Arreton St George

Church of England Diocese: Portsmouth

Details

The monument includes a fishpond and additional buried remains representing
part of a monastic grange associated with Quarr Abbey and situated in the
grounds of a later manor house on the lower south facing slope of the Yar
valley on the Isle of Wight. Part of the fabric of the grange is incorporated
into the present manor house.

The grange is known from documentary sources to have developed on the site of
a Saxon manor. This passed into Norman hands after the Conquest. The present
manor house lies in its own grounds, with the manor farm to its north east.
Earlier medieval features representing parts of the grange, including the wool
room can still be seen in the house, though this was largely remodelled in
the 16th and 18th centuries. The house is Listed Grade II* and excluded from
the scheduling, although the ground beneath it is included. To the south west
of the house is the pond, which was once one of a flight of medieval
fishponds. The surviving pond has dimensions of c.30m north-south and c.20m
east-west.

Before the Conquest Earl Harold held Haseley, but it passed via William the
Conqueror to his son William Rufus who in turn granted it to the Norman Baron
Engelger de Bohun. A deed of 1136, held in the British Museum, records the
sale of Haseley by de Bohun to Quarr Abbey. The abbey used the manor as a
bercarie or sheep farm, mainly for the wool trade, and enlarged the Saxon
manor by adding on the great wool room some time after 1139. At this time it
was recorded that a fulling mill was built on the stream next to the house.
This mill, working on the undershot principle, was reputedly the first such
mill on the Isle of Wight. The stream has now dried up, but its course can
still be seen in pasture land to the south of the manor house. The great wool
room comprised what is now the south wing of the house and some of the
original medieval timbers can still be seen in the roof. The farm buildings to
the north east of the manor house include a great barn dating to the 17th
century and Listed Grade II. The long lane which runs north from the manor to
the foot of the downs was once a mile long, and represents a droveway betwen
the manor and downland grazing. At the Reformation Haseley passed into private
hands.

The manor house, the chestnut paling fence and metal bridge to the south of
the manor house, the post and wire fence and the telegraph pole and supports
west of the manor house, the caravans and buildings, all to the west of the
manor house, are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath all
of these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A monastic grange was a farm owned and run by a monastic community and
independent of the secular manorial system of communal agriculture and servile
labour. The function of granges was to provide food and raw materials for
consumption within the parent monastic house itself, and also to provide
surpluses for sale for profit. The first monastic granges appeared in the 12th
century but they continued to be constructed and used until the Dissolution.
This system of agriculture was pioneered by the Cistercian order but was soon
imitated by other orders. Some granges were worked by resident lay-brothers
(secular workers) of the order but others were staffed by non-resident
labourers. The majority of granges practised a mixed economy but some were
specialist in their function. Five types of grange are known: agrarian farms,
bercaries (sheep farms), vaccaries (cattle ranches), horse studs and
industrial complexes. A monastery might have more than one grange and the
wealthiest houses had many. Frequently a grange was established on lands
immediately adjacent to the monastery, this being known as the home grange.
Other granges, however, could be found wherever the monastic site held lands.
On occasion these could be located at some considerable distance from the
parent monastery. Granges are broadly comparable with contemporary secular
farms although the wealth of the parent house was frequently reflected in the
size of the grange and the layout and architectural embellishment of the
buildings. Additionally, because of their monastic connection, granges tend to
be much better documented than their secular counterparts. No region was
without monastic granges. The exact number of sites which originally existed
is not precisely known but can be estimated, on the basis of numbers of
monastic sites, at several thousand. Of these, however, only a small
percentage can be accurately located on the ground today. Of this group of
identifiable sites, continued intensive use of many has destroyed much of the
evidence of archaeological remains. In view of the importance of granges to
medieval rural and monastic life, all sites exhibiting good archaeological
survival are identified as nationally important.

The site of the monastic grange at Haseley Manor is one of only very few known
to survive on the Isle of Wight, and is central to a variety of contemporary
features, including a droveway, fishpond and additional settlement remains
associated with the wool industry. The site has a documentary history dating
back to the time of the Domesday Survey.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hockey, S F, Quarr Abbey and its Lands 1132-1631, (1970), 50-52
Young, R, Haseley Manor Isle of Wight, (1988), 6
Young, R, Haseley Manor Isle of Wight, (1988), 3-5
Other
Young, R., (1993)

Source: Historic England

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