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The Mote Castle mound, medieval motte castle and site of late medieval beacon

A Scheduled Monument in Brampton, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.944 / 54°56'38"N

Longitude: -2.73 / 2°43'48"W

OS Eastings: 353332.945538

OS Northings: 561283.087653

OS Grid: NY533612

Mapcode National: GBR 9CC8.RH

Mapcode Global: WH7ZT.1Z8Q

Entry Name: The Mote Castle mound, medieval motte castle and site of late medieval beacon

Scheduled Date: 10 January 1962

Last Amended: 18 March 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1013967

English Heritage Legacy ID: 27694

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Brampton

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Brampton St Martin

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument includes The Mote Castle mound, a 12th/13th century medieval
motte castle located on the summit of Castle Hill in Brampton which was later
used as the site of a signalling beacon during the 15th century. The motte is
artificially cut out of the higher end of a long ridge and consists of an
oval-shaped summit plateau measuring c.36m by 18m. About 12m downslope there
is an encircling ditch c.5m wide and up to 3m deep which is flanked by an
outer bank measuring c.5m wide and up to 2m high. There are extensive views to
the west, north and east from the summit of the hill and it is for this reason
that the hilltop was later used as the site of a beacon. This system of
beacons was created to warn of impending attack by Scottish invaders and was
developed from the time of Henry III (1216-72). A list of beacons dated to
1468 indicates that the beacon at Brampton connected with a system of beacons
which ran along the Tyne valley to the east.
A number of features are excluded from the scheduling: these comprise the
statue of the 7th Earl of Carlisle together with its plinth and concrete base
situated on the summit of the hill, a wooden seat, a fence, a stile, and a
stone retaining wall flanking a path leading to the hilltop; the ground
beneath all these features, however, is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Motte castles are medieval fortifications introduced into Britain by the
Normans. They comprised a large conical mound of earth or rubble, the motte,
surmounted by a palisade and a stone or timber tower. In a majority of
examples an embanked enclosure containing additional buildings, the bailey,
adjoined the motte. Motte castles and motte-and-bai1ey castles acted as
garrison forts during offensive military operations, as strongholds, and, in
many cases, as aristocratic residences and as centres of local or royal
administration. Built in towns, villages and open countryside, motte castles
generally occupied strategic positions dominating their immediate locality
and, as a result, are the most visually impressive monuments of the early
post-Conquest period surviving in the modern landscape. Over 600 motte castles
and motte-and-bailey castles are recorded nationally, with examples known from
most regions. Some 100-150 examples do not have baileys and are classified as
motte castles. As one of a restricted range of recognised early post-Conquest
monuments, they are particularly important for the study of Norman Britain and
the development of the feudal system. Although many were occupied for only a
short period of time, motte castles continued to be built and occupied from
the 11th to the 13th centuries, after which they were superseded by other
types of castle.

Beacons were fires deliberately lit to give warning, by means of smoke by day
and fire by night, of the approach of hostile forces. They were always sited
in prominent positions, usually as part of a group, chain or line which
together made up a comprehensive early warning system covering most of the
country. They were extensively used during the medieval period and some were
used later, for example at the time of Monmouth's Rebellion in 1685 or during
the Napoleonic Wars. Beacons were initially bonfires of wood or furze, but
later barrels of pitch or iron fire baskets mounted on poles were used. More
unusual beacon types include stone enclosures and towers, and some beacon
sites utilised existing buildings such as church towers.
Despite the addition of a statue to the monument's summit in 1864, Mote Castle
mound medieval motte survives reasonably well. Its defensive earthworks in
particular remain well preserved. The hilltop is a rare example of the site of
a motte castle which was later used as a beacon, and it will retain
significant archaeological evidence of both these phases of use.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Curwen, J F, 'Trans Cumb & West Antiq & Arch Soc. Extra Ser.' in Castles and Towers of Cumb, West and Lancs N of the Sands, , Vol. XIII, (1913), 334-5
Curwen, J F, 'Trans Cumb & West Antiq & Arch Soc. Extra Ser.' in Castles and Towers of Cumb, West and Lancs N of the Sands, , Vol. XIII, (1913), 39
Curwen, J F, 'Trans Cumb & West Antiq & Arch Soc. Extra Ser.' in Castles and Towers of Cumb, West and Lancs N of the Sands, , Vol. XIII, (1913), 335
FMW Report, Crow, J, The Mote Castle Mound, (1991)
Leach, P.E., MPP Single Monument Class Descriptions - Motte & Bailey Castles, (1988)

Source: Historic England

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