Ancient Monuments

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Bowl barrow on Beacon Hill, 500m south of Ellesborough church

A Scheduled Monument in Ellesborough, Buckinghamshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.7485 / 51°44'54"N

Longitude: -0.7907 / 0°47'26"W

OS Eastings: 483581.927113

OS Northings: 206221.791143

OS Grid: SP835062

Mapcode National: GBR D3Q.BX6

Mapcode Global: VHDVK.79VZ

Entry Name: Bowl barrow on Beacon Hill, 500m south of Ellesborough church

Scheduled Date: 27 November 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1013939

English Heritage Legacy ID: 27141

County: Buckinghamshire

Civil Parish: Ellesborough

Built-Up Area: Ellesborough

Traditional County: Buckinghamshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Buckinghamshire

Church of England Parish: Ellesborough

Church of England Diocese: Oxford

Details

The monument includes a small Bronze Age bowl barrow situated on the tip of
Beacon Hill, a pronounced spur which commands wide views over the Vale of
Aylesbury to the north and along the Chiltern escarpment to the east and west.
The barrow mound is roughly circular, measuring c.12m diameter and up to 0.7m
in height. The ground surface falls away sharply from the edge of the mound on
all but the southern side and, as there are no indications of an encircling
ditch, it is thought to have been constructed using topsoil and chalk scraped
from the surrounding hillside. In the centre of the mound is a conical
depression, c.5m wide across the top, which is believed to have resulted from
the removal of a flagstaff which stood here in the last century and, perhaps,
from its further use as a gun emplacement during World War II. The barrow was
partially excavated by a local antiquarian in 1855-6, revealing fragments of a
ceramic urn, charcoal, bone and a horse's tooth. Further fragments of early
Bronze Age pottery with impressed decoration were discovered near the mound in
1973.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments
dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age, with most
examples belonging to the period 2400-1500 BC. They were constructed as
earthen or rubble mounds, sometimes ditched, which covered single or multiple
burials. They occur either in isolation or grouped as cemeteries and often
acted as a focus for burials in later periods. Often superficially similar,
although differing widely in size, they exhibit regional variations in form
and a diversity of burial practices. There are over 10,000 surviving bowl
barrows recorded nationally (many more have already been destroyed), occurring
across most of lowland Britain. Often occupying prominent locations, they are
a major historic element in the modern landscape and their considerable
variation of form and longevity as a monument type provide important
information on the diversity of beliefs and social organisations amongst early
prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period
and a substantial proportion of surviving examples are considered worthy of
protection.

Despite being disturbed by past investigation and reuse, the bowl barrow on
Beacon Hill survives well as a landscape feature, standing out from the
horizon when viewed from lower ground to the north, east and west.
The 1855-6 excavation clearly demonstrates the archaeological value of the
monument and although some of the cultural material has been removed,
significant information will still survive. Further deposits within and
beneath the mound remain largely undisturbed. These will include funerary
remains, illustrating the date and function of the monument and the beliefs of
the community which built it; and environmental evidence preserved in the
earlier ground surface buried beneath the mound, which may indicate the
character of the landscape in which it was built. Comparison with other
barrows situated across the chalk escarpment will provide evidence for the
development of early ritual practices, and assist in the study of Bronze Age
settlement in the Chiltern Hills.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Burgess, B, 'Records of Bucks' in Earthworks at Hampden and Little Kimble, , Vol. 1, (1856), 140-1
Dyer, J F, 'Archaeological Journal' in Barrows of the Chilterns, , Vol. 116, (1959), 16
Farley, M E, 'Ant. J' in A late Bronze Age Razor from Ellesborough, , Vol. 64, (1980), 361-62
Other
RCHM, An Inventory of the Historical Monuments of Buckinghamshire, (1914)
Record of finds accessioned by B.C.M., 0910,
Visit Notes, Pike, A, 0910, (1979)

Source: Historic England

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