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Market cross

A Scheduled Monument in Hooton Pagnell, Doncaster

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.5673 / 53°34'2"N

Longitude: -1.2684 / 1°16'6"W

OS Eastings: 448549.664721

OS Northings: 408101.627302

OS Grid: SE485081

Mapcode National: GBR MWL5.6Y

Mapcode Global: WHDCT.HL7L

Entry Name: Market cross

Scheduled Date: 6 September 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1012937

English Heritage Legacy ID: 27209

County: Doncaster

Civil Parish: Hooton Pagnell

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): South Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: Bilham

Church of England Diocese: Sheffield

Details

The monument is located on the west side of the main road through Hooton
Pagnell and includes the remains of a late medieval or early post-medieval
market cross. The remains include a stepped base or calvary, a plinth, a socle
or socket stone and a cross shaft. The whole is set in a niche at the road
side, overlooking a steep drop to the west.
The 1m high calvary currently comprises three steps of magnesian limestone
slabs. The bottom step is over 0.5m high and has a triple course of foundation
stones visible underneath. This exposed foundation indicates that there was,
originally, a fourth and possibly even a fifth step which would have extended
into the road on the east side and almost filled the niche in which the cross
is set. This implies that the cross originally covered an area of some 4m
square.
Surmounting the calvary is a 20cm high magnesian limestone plinth. On top of
this is a moulded socle which measures approximately 75cm square and a little
under 50cm high. The bottom half of the socle is square but the top half is
octagonal. The corners of the square section extended upwards creating sharp
pyramidal stops on alternate faces of the octagonal section. In the top of the
socle is a 25cm square socket hole which is much bigger than the current shaft
which measures approximately 20cm by 15cm and stands 60cm high. This suggests
that the current shaft is a replacement though it is clearly of some
antiquity. The current shaft has chamfered corners and a bevelled top portion
which includes a peg-hole. The latter feature may, originally, have held a
wooden cross head or other fixture.
Local tradition is that the cross was erected in the mid-16th century.
However, the style of the socle points to a 13th century date for this part of
the cross which suggests that the monument is, in fact, a multi-period
construction. A market charter was granted in 1253 to Sir Geoffrey Luterel of
`Hooton Painell' and it is probable that the socle and original cross shaft
date to this period. The original shaft may have been removed and replaced in
the mid-16th century, which was a period of religious iconoclasm in England.
It is not clear to which period the calvary belongs but it too may have been
added in the 16th century. The cross is Listed Grade II.
The wall enclosing the monument is not included in the scheduling.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Hooton Pagnell market cross is a very well-preserved and visually impressive
example of a later standing cross which is still in its original location and
retains all its components though these are not necessarily all of the same
date. The existence of documentary evidence relating to the cross enhances its
importance.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Clark, Professor, 'Thoresby Society Publications' in Thoresby Society Publications, , Vol. 15, (1909), 26-29
Other
Clark, Professor, Thoresby Society Publications, (1909)
Shackleton Hill, Angela, (1994)

Source: Historic England

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