Ancient Monuments

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Enclosure with carved rocks and disturbed cairn known as Green Crag Enclosure

A Scheduled Monument in Ilkley, Bradford

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Latitude: 53.9097 / 53°54'34"N

Longitude: -1.8037 / 1°48'13"W

OS Eastings: 412993.445518

OS Northings: 445966.631288

OS Grid: SE129459

Mapcode National: GBR HRV7.97

Mapcode Global: WHC8P.8ZCM

Entry Name: Enclosure with carved rocks and disturbed cairn known as Green Crag Enclosure

Scheduled Date: 17 October 1930

Last Amended: 8 June 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1012840

English Heritage Legacy ID: 25344

County: Bradford

Civil Parish: Ilkley

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): West Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: Ben Rhydding St John the Evangelist

Church of England Diocese: Leeds


The monument includes a prehistoric enclosure with at least six carved rocks
and a disturbed cairn, situated below Green Crag at its western end.
The enclosure is c.200m long and 65m wide and is incomplete on its western
side. It has at least one subdivision, and there are several other fragmentary
rubble banks. The banks which form the enclosure are typically 1.5m-2m wide
and 0.6m high. They consist of rubble with orthostats. At least one carved
rock has been used in the construction of the bank on the northern side of the
enclosure. On the western side a carved earthfast boulder may underlie the
rubble bank; the precise relationship is obscured by heather.
The six carved rocks (including those mentioned above) lie within or just
outside the enclosure. They have a variety of carvings in the cup and ring
tradition, ranging from single cup marks to more complex designs of cups,
rings and grooves.
The disturbed cairn is situated a short distance to the east of the enclosure
and consists of a flat-bottomed hollow c.3m in diameter surrounded by a ring
of spoil.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Rombalds Moor is an eastern outlier of the main Pennine range lying between
the valleys of the Wharfe and the Aire. The bulk of this area of 90 sq km of
rough moorland lies over 200m above sea level. The moor is particularly rich
in remains of prehistoric activity. The most numerous relics are the rock
carvings which can be found on many of the boulders and outcrops scattered
across the moor. Burial monuments, stone circles and a range of enclosed
settlements are also known.
Within the landscape of Rombalds Moor are many discrete plots of land enclosed
by stone walls or banks of stone and earth, most of which date to the Bronze
Age (c.2000-700 BC), although earlier and later examples may also exist. They
were constructed as protected areas for settlement, stock penning, or crop
growing. They may be subdivided into a series of smaller enclosures; those
used for settlement may retain evidence of the round huts originally located
within them. The size and form of enclosures vary considerably, depending on
their particular function. Their variation in form, longevity and relationship
to other monument classes provide important information on the diversity of
social organisation and farming practices among prehistoric communities. They
are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion
of surviving examples are worthy of protection.

Prehistoric rock carving is found on natural boulders and rock outcrops in
many areas of upland Britain. It is especially common in the north of England
in Northumberland, Durham, and North and West Yorkshire. The most common form
of decoration is the `cup' marking, where small cup-like hollows are worked
into the surface of the rock. These cups may be surrounded by one or more
`rings'. Single pecked lines extending from the cup through the rings may also
exist, providing the design with a `tail'. Other shapes and patterns also
occur but are less frequent. Carvings may occur singly, in small groups, or
may cover extensive areas of rock surface. They date to the Late Neolithic and
Bronze Age periods (2800-c.500 BC) and provide one of our most important
insights into prehistoric `art'. The exact meaning of the designs remains
unknown, but they may be interpreted as sacred or religious symbols. All
positively identified prehistoric rock carving sites will normally be
identified as nationally important.
This enclosure is a typical and well preserved example of an upland
prehistoric enclosure. It also forms an important part of the prehistoric
landscape on this part of Rombalds Moor. The concentration of carved rocks in
the area of the enclosure may indicate that it had a ritual function as well
as being a site for more domestic activities. Although much disturbed, the
cairn remains identifiable, and information on its relationship to the
enclosure in which it is located will be preserved.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 94
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 94
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 94
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 47
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 47
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 47

Source: Historic England

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