Ancient Monuments

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Lumford Mill, Bakewell

A Scheduled Monument in Bakewell, Derbyshire

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Latitude: 53.2209 / 53°13'15"N

Longitude: -1.6879 / 1°41'16"W

OS Eastings: 420935.82017

OS Northings: 369366.905102

OS Grid: SK209693

Mapcode National: GBR 57S.02M

Mapcode Global: WHCD7.19JL

Entry Name: Lumford Mill, Bakewell

Scheduled Date: 7 October 1991

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1012436

English Heritage Legacy ID: 12010

County: Derbyshire

Civil Parish: Bakewell

Built-Up Area: Bakewell

Traditional County: Derbyshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Derbyshire

Church of England Parish: Longstone St Giles

Church of England Diocese: Derby


The monument includes the water management earthworks and structures
associated with Sir Richard Arkwright's third mill. It was his first designed
to use river water and became his most ambitious water-harnessing scheme. The
surviving features comprise a submerged weir, a millstream, millpond and mill-
race (all retained by an earthen embankment), a high retaining dam wall, a
water outlet tunnel and a tail-race. The original lease on the site was
obtained by Arkwright in 1777 who went on to build the first mill and
millpond. The original millpond lay behind the mill buildings and comprised
three weirs, an embankment and a new river channel. The millpond was contained
behind a high dam wall which incorporated a millwheel of undershot type. By
the 1820s the pond and water wheel were no longer adequate and were modified
by an embankment 0.8km long with an enlarged water wheel of high-breast type.
The embankments were further modified and strengthened in 1880 on the line of
the original embankments. Together with the enlarged millpond, millrace, dam
wall, tailrace and river bridge, the hydraulic system of post-1820 survives
intact. The mill buildings were destroyed by fire and successive modern
buildings now cover the original mill site.
The tunnel is included in the scheduling as a subterranean feature. The ground
surface which overlies it, including the car park, is excluded from the
scheduling. The turbine house and its modern machinery sited at the south end
of the dam wall, and the tilting sluice towards the western end of Mill Pond
are also excluded from the scheduling.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The monument, comprising the water management system associated with Sir
Richard Arkwright's third mill and his first designed to harness river
power, survives as an almost complete and well-preserved series of earthworks
and structures. The diversity of weirs, bridges, embankment and dam wall are
important examples of 19th century industrial engineering. Documentation
provides a full picture of Arkwright's original and modified plans for the
mill, its operation and productivity.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Mackensie, M H, 'Derbyshire Archaeol J' in The Bakewell Cotton Mill and the Arkwrights, (1959), 61-79
Thornhill, R, 'Derbyshire Archaeol J' in The Arkwright Cotton Mill at Bakewell, (1959), 80-87

Source: Historic England

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