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Two bowl barrows forming part of the Winterbourne Stoke crossroads round barrow cemetery

A Scheduled Monument in Winterbourne Stoke, Wiltshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.1773 / 51°10'38"N

Longitude: -1.8523 / 1°51'8"W

OS Eastings: 410416.914644

OS Northings: 142015.304646

OS Grid: SU104420

Mapcode National: GBR 3YP.0J1

Mapcode Global: VHB59.VN3V

Entry Name: Two bowl barrows forming part of the Winterbourne Stoke crossroads round barrow cemetery

Scheduled Date: 30 March 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1012382

English Heritage Legacy ID: 10448

County: Wiltshire

Civil Parish: Winterbourne Stoke

Traditional County: Wiltshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Wiltshire

Church of England Parish: Amesbury St Mary and St Melor

Church of England Diocese: Salisbury

Details

The monument includes two levelled bowl barrows forming part of the
Winterbourne Stoke crossroads round barrow cemetery, situated on a ridge with
views westwards across the Till valley and eastwards across Stonehenge and
Normanton Down. The Winterbourne Stoke crossroads cemetery contains 22 round
barrows in all, including 14 bowl barrows, three bell barrows, two disc
barrows, two pond barrows and a saucer barrow. These two bowl barrows
represent outliers to the cemetery, the core of which is situated to the
south west.
The barrows, which are aligned north east-south west are now difficult to
identify on the ground but are recorded on a 19th century plan, from which the
mound of the northern barrow is calculated to be c.18m in diameter and the
mound of the southern is calculated to be c.35m in diameter. Both mounds are
surrounded by ditches from which material was quarried during their
construction. These have become infilled over the years but survive as buried
features c.2m wide in the case of the northern barrow, giving an overall
diameter of c.22m, and c.3.5m in the case of the southern barrow, giving an
overall diameter of c.42m.
All fence posts are excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath these
features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A small number of areas in southern England appear to have acted as foci for
ceremonial and ritual activity during the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods.
Two of the best known and earliest recognised areas are around Avebury and
Stonehenge, now jointly designated as a World Heritage Site.
The area of chalk downland which surrounds Stonehenge contains one of the
densest and most varied groups of Neolithic and Bronze Age field monuments in
Britain. Included within the area are Stonehenge itself, the Stonehenge
cursus, the Durrington Walls henge, and a variety of burial monuments, many
grouped into cemeteries.
The area has been the subject of archaeological research since the 18th
century when Stukeley recorded many of the monuments and partially excavated a
number of the burial mounds. More recently, the collection of artefacts from
the surfaces of ploughed fields has supplemented the evidence for ritual and
burial by revealing the intensity of contemporary settlement and land-use. In
view of the importance of the area, all ceremonial and sepulchral monuments of
this period which retain significant archaeological remains are identified as
nationally important.
Round barrow cemeteries date to the Bronze Age (2000-700 BC). They comprise
closely spaced groups of up to 30 round barrows - rubble or earthen mounds
covering single or multiple burials. Most cemeteries developed over a
considerable period of time, often many centuries, and in some cases acted as
a focus for burials as late as the early medieval period. They exhibit
considerable diversity of burial rite, plan and form, frequently including
several different types of round barrow and occasionally associated with
earlier long barrows. Where investigation beyond the round barrows has
occurred, contemporary or later 'flat' burials between the barrow mounds have
often been revealed. Round barrow cemeteries occur across most of lowland
England with a marked concentration in Wessex. In some cases they are
clustered around other important contemporary monuments, as is the case both
here and at Avebury. Often occupying prominent positions, they are a major
historic element in the modern landscape, while their diversity and their
longevity as a monument type provide important information on the variety of
beliefs and social organisation amongst early prehistoric communities.

Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments
dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age. They were
constructed as earthen or rubble mounds, normally ditched, which covered
single or multiple burials. Often superficially similar, although differing
widely in size, they exhibit regional variations in form and a variety of
burial practices. The burials, either inhumations or cremations, are
sometimes accompanied by pottery vessels, tools and personal ornaments. There
are over 10,000 surviving bowl barrows recorded nationally and at least 320 in
the Stonehenge area.

Despite having been levelled by cultivation, the two bowl barrows forming part
of the Winterbourne Stoke crossroads round barrow cemetery will contain
archaeological remains and environmental evidence relating to the monument and
landscape in which it was constructed. Aerial photographs have shown that the
ditch fills survive undisturbed, while deposits located on the Bronze Age
ground surface will survive beneath the area disturbed by cultivation.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Grinsell, LV, The Victoria History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume V, (1957), 201
Hoare, R C, Ancient History of Wiltshire, (1812), 126
RCHME, , Stonehenge and its Environs, (1979), 3
Thurnam, J, 'Archaeologia' in On Ancient Barrows, especially those of Wiltshire, , Vol. 43, (1870), 309,353

Source: Historic England

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