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Entrance grave 47m north west of Old Rock, Porth Hellick Down, St Mary's

A Scheduled Monument in St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly

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Coordinates

Latitude: 49.917 / 49°55'1"N

Longitude: -6.2797 / 6°16'47"W

OS Eastings: 92891.746752

OS Northings: 10646.891823

OS Grid: SV928106

Mapcode National: GBR BXWX.2D8

Mapcode Global: VGYC5.3BJZ

Entry Name: Entrance grave 47m north west of Old Rock, Porth Hellick Down, St Mary's

Scheduled Date: 7 October 1976

Last Amended: 17 May 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011945

English Heritage Legacy ID: 15362

County: Isles of Scilly

Civil Parish: St. Mary's

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Isles of Scilly

Church of England Diocese: Truro

Details

The monument includes a prehistoric entrance grave situated towards the
south east edge of Porth Hellick Down, on south eastern St Mary's in the Isles
of Scilly.

The entrance grave survives with a circular mound of heaped rubble, 13m in
diameter and 1m high. The mound rises to a kerb of spaced slabs, mostly
edge-set and up to 1.1m long and 0.55m high, with some lower slabs covered by
a thin turf. The kerb defines the perimeter of a flattened platform, 7m in
diameter, which is almost bisected by a funerary chamber with a north-south
long axis, the entrance facing north.

The southern end of the chamber is lined by large edge-set slabs on the west
side and across the southern end, and by a boulder on the east side. Another
large slab, called a capstone, measuring 1.8m long by 1.4m wide and 0.3m
thick, lies flat across the chamber, resting on the side-slabs. This intact
chamber stonework protrudes 0.7m from the top of the mound to the top of the
capstone and defines the interior of the chamber's southern end, measuring 2m
north-south by 1.2m wide and 0.7m high. The chamber occupies almost the full
width of the platform, its southern terminal slab located close to the
largest slab in the platform's kerb. North of the slab-lined southern end, the
unroofed sides of the chamber extend a further 4m, almost to the northern edge
of the cairn's platform and visible as a turf-covered hollow, up to 1.2m wide,
giving an overall length of 6m for the chamber. The capstones and most
side-slabs of this northern sector of the chamber have been removed during an
unrecorded stone-robbing episode.

This monument forms part of a cairn cemetery containing at least eight other
cairns dispersed across the central plateau of Porth Hellick Down. The cairns
in this cemetery vary in form but at least six of these are entrance graves,
forming one of the largest surviving groupings of this type of monument. A
broadly contemporary field system extends along the north west slope of the
Down. Other prehistoric cairn cemeteries, including entrance graves, are
located on the adjacent coastal downs of Salakee Down to the south west and
Normandy Down to the NNE.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The Isles of Scilly, the westernmost of the granite masses of south west
England, contain a remarkable abundance and variety of archaeological remains
from over 4000 years of human activity. The remote physical setting of the
islands, over 40km beyond the mainland in the approaches to the English
Channel, has lent a distinctive character to those remains, producing many
unusual features important for our broader understanding of the social
development of early communities.
Throughout the human occupation there has been a gradual submergence of the
islands' land area, providing a stimulus to change in the environment and its
exploitation. This process has produced evidence for responses to such change
against an independent time-scale, promoting integrated studies of
archaeological, environmental and linguistic aspects of the islands'
settlement.
The islands' archaeological remains demonstrate clearly the gradually
expanding size and range of contacts of their communities. By the post-
medieval period (from AD 1540), the islands occupied a nationally strategic
location, resulting in an important concentration of defensive works
reflecting the development of fortification methods and technology from the
mid 16th to the 20th centuries. An important and unusual range of post-
medieval monuments also reflects the islands' position as a formidable hazard
for the nation's shipping in the western approaches.
The exceptional preservation of the archaeological remains on the islands has
long been recognised, producing an unusually full and detailed body of
documentation, including several recent surveys.
Entrance graves are funerary and ritual monuments whose construction and use
dates to the later Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age (c.2500-1000 BC).
They were constructed with a roughly circular mound of heaped rubble and
earth, up to 25m in diameter, whose perimeter may be defined by a kerb of
edge-set slabs or, occasionally, coursed stone. The mound contains a
rectangular chamber built of edge-set slabs or coursed rubble walling, or a
combination of both. The chamber was roofed by further slabs, called
capstones, set across the chamber. The chamber was accessible via a gap in the
mound's kerb or outer edge and often extends back beyond the centre of the
mound. The cairn's mound and chamber may incorporate natural boulders and
outcrops. Excavations in entrance graves have revealed cremated human bone and
funerary urns, usually within the chambers but on occasion within the mound.
Unburnt human bone has also been recovered but is only rarely preserved. Some
chambers have also produced ritual deposits of domestic midden debris,
including dark earth typical of the surface soil found within settlements,
animal bone and artefact fragments. Entrance graves may occur as single
monuments or in small or large groups, often being associated with other cairn
types in cemeteries. They may also occur in close proximity to broadly
contemporary field boundaries. The national distribution of entrance graves is
heavily weighted towards the Isles of Scilly which contain 79 of the 93
surviving examples recorded nationally, the remaining 14 being located in
western Cornwall.

This entrance grave on Porth Hellick Down has survived substantially intact.
Despite some stone-robbing from the funerary chamber, the monument retains
clear evidence for the original form and construction of its mound and
chamber. The presence of this monument within a cemetery containing various
cairn types, its proximity to a prehistoric field system on the western
slope of the Down, and the disposition of this and the other cairn cemeteries
on successive downs along the coast are all factors combining to illustrate
well the diversity of funerary practices and the organisation of land use
during the Bronze Age.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Ashbee, P, Ancient Scilly, (1974)
Ashbee, P, The chambered Tombs on St Mary's, Isles of Scilly, (1963), 9-18
Russell, V, Isles of Scilly Survey, (1980)
Other
consulted 1994, Waters, A., AM 107 for Scilly SMR entry PRN 7527, (1988)
consulted 1994, Waters, A., AM 107 for Scilly SMR entry PRN 7528, (1988)
consulted 1994, Waters, A., AM 107 for Scilly SMR entry PRN 7528.07, (1988)
Rees, S., AM7 scheduling documentation for CO 1026, 1975, consulted 1994
Title: 1:2500 Ordnance Survey Map; SV 9210
Source Date: 1980
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Source: Historic England

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