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Enclosure on Woofa Bank with 11 carved rocks and one upright stone

A Scheduled Monument in Burley, Bradford

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.9054 / 53°54'19"N

Longitude: -1.7901 / 1°47'24"W

OS Eastings: 413887.987179

OS Northings: 445487.528888

OS Grid: SE138454

Mapcode National: GBR HRY8.7S

Mapcode Global: WHC8W.G3TD

Entry Name: Enclosure on Woofa Bank with 11 carved rocks and one upright stone

Scheduled Date: 20 June 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011753

English Heritage Legacy ID: 25311

County: Bradford

Civil Parish: Burley

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): West Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: Burley-in-Wharfedale St Mary the Blessed Virgin

Church of England Diocese: Leeds

Details

The monument includes an egg shaped, rubble walled enclosure on Woofa Bank.
The monument also includes 11 carved rocks and a stone near the centre of the
enclosure which has been set upright.
The enclosure is c.80m in length and c.55m in width. It is incomplete on the
south eastern side, which may in part be due to the steeper slope on this
side. It is, however, more likely that this part of the enclosure walling has
been robbed at this point, as there are a number of small stone quarries in
this area. The enclosure walling is most substantial on the western side where
it is c.3m wide and 0.5m high. The walling appears to be coursed in places and
incorporates a number of large boulders, some of which are set upright.
The majority of the carved rocks included in this monument are within the
enclosure, one is incorporated in the enclosure walling, and another lies
immediately outside the enclosure on the western side. The carvings range from
single cup marks to much more complex designs; all are in the cup and ring
tradition.
In the approximate centre of the enclosure is a single rectangular rock which
appears to have been intentionally set upright.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Rombalds Moor is an eastern outlier of the main Pennine range lying between
the valleys of the Wharfe and the Aire. The bulk of this area of 90 sq km of
rough moorland lies over 200m above sea level. The moor is particularly rich
in remains of prehistoric activity. The most numerous relics are the rock
carvings which can be found on many of the boulders and outcrops scattered
across the moor. Burial monuments, stone circles and a range of enclosed
settlements are also known.
Within the landscape of Rombalds Moor are many discrete plots of land enclosed
by stone walls or banks of stone and earth, most of which date to the Bronze
Age (c.2000-700 BC), although earlier and later examples may also exist. They
were constructed as protected areas for settlement, stock penning, or crop
growing. They may be subdivided into a series of smaller enclosures; those
used for settlement may retain evidence of the round huts originally located
within them. The size and form of enclosures vary considerably, depending on
their particular function. Their variation in form, longevity and relationship
to other monument classes provide important information on the diversity of
social organisation and farming practices among prehistoric communities. They
are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion
of surviving examples are worthy of protection.

Prehistoric rock carving is found on natural boulders and rock outcrops in
many areas of upland Britain. It is especially common in the north of England
in Northumberland, Durham, and North and West Yorkshire. The most common form
of decoration is the `cup' marking, where small cup-like hollows are worked
into the surface of the rock. These cups may be surrounded by one or more
`rings'. Single pecked lines extending from the cup through the rings may also
exist, providing the design with a `tail'. Other shapes and patterns also
occur but are less frequent. Carvings may occur singly, in small groups, or
may cover extensive areas of rock surface. They date to the Late Neolithic and
Bronze Age periods (2800-c.500 BC) and provide one our most important insights
into prehistoric `art'. The exact meaning of the designs remains unknown, but
they may be interpreted as sacred or religious symbols. All positively
identified prehistoric rock carvings sites will normally be identified as
nationally important.
This enclosure is a typical and well preserved example of an upland
prehistoric enclosure. It also forms a vital part of the prehistoric landscape
on this part of Rombalds Moor. The presence of the upright rock and the very
high concentration of carved rocks in the area of the enclosure may indicate
that it had a ritual function as well as being a site for more domestic
activities.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 102
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 106
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 50
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 49
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 50
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 49
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 50
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 102
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 106
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 49
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 103

Source: Historic England

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