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Romano-British farmstead, 750m east of Camphill Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Chollerton, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.0801 / 55°4'48"N

Longitude: -2.1201 / 2°7'12"W

OS Eastings: 392430.849395

OS Northings: 576185.937168

OS Grid: NY924761

Mapcode National: GBR F9MP.TR

Mapcode Global: WHB1S.DKNX

Entry Name: Romano-British farmstead, 750m east of Camphill Farm

Scheduled Date: 20 March 1967

Last Amended: 1 December 1993

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011423

English Heritage Legacy ID: 20928

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Chollerton

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Chollerton St Giles

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes a farmstead of Romano-British date situated on an
easterly slope, now bisected by a small stream running in a south-easterly
direction. The irregular-shaped enclosure measures a maximum of 60m north-west
to south-east by 65m north-east to south-west within a bank up to 1m above the
bottom of a prominent internal ditch 6m wide. Traces of a counter-scarp bank,
constructed of upcast from the ditch, are visible on the east side of the
enclosure. An entrance 8m wide and a causeway across the ditch are visible on
the north-west side. There are no visible traces of internal features but
remains of these will survive beneath ground level. At the north-eastern
corner of the farmstead a length of rampart with a ditch on the north side
extends out from the enclosure for 10m in a north-easterly direction; it is of
similar size and nature to the rampart and ditch forming the farmstead
enclosure. The fence which traverses the enclosure from east to west is
excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath it is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The farmstead east of Camphill is well preserved and is a good example of its
type. It will retain significant archaeological remains. Additionally, it is
one of a group of similar monuments in this area and will contribute to study
of the wider settlement pattern of the area at this period.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
No. 5446,

Source: Historic England

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