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Romano-British enclosed stone hut circle settlement and round cairn 350m south of Hartsop Hall

A Scheduled Monument in Patterdale, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.4967 / 54°29'47"N

Longitude: -2.931 / 2°55'51"W

OS Eastings: 339796.959821

OS Northings: 511656.832489

OS Grid: NY397116

Mapcode National: GBR 7JZF.7V

Mapcode Global: WH820.Y7FM

Entry Name: Romano-British enclosed stone hut circle settlement and round cairn 350m south of Hartsop Hall

Scheduled Date: 6 August 1973

Last Amended: 13 October 1993

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011359

English Heritage Legacy ID: 22562

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Patterdale

Traditional County: Westmorland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Patterdale St Patrick

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument includes a Romano-British enclosed stone hut circle settlement
located on a gentle slope at the foot of High Hartsop Dodd, south of the
confluence of Dovedale and Kirkstone Becks, and a round cairn 30m east of the
settlement. The enclosed stone hut circle settlement includes a roughly oval
enclosure bank up to 5.5m wide and 1m high having two entrances; one on the
west where the rampart is projected inwards on the northern side of the
opening, and the other on the south-east where the rampart is projected
outwards on both sides of the opening. Within the enclosure are five hut
circles; two in the northern half measuring 11.5m and 6.5m in diameter, and
one at the southern half, close to the enclosure bank, measuring 9m in
diameter. Adjacent to this latter hut circle are two roughly circular
depressions interpreted as the sites of two hut circles measuring 13.5m and
10m in diameter. Immediately to the south-south-east of the enclosure bank is
a roughly rectangular enclosure measuring approximately 34m by 27m which
contains short lengths of earthworks in its western half. To the north-east of
this enclosure, and separated from it by a narrow passageway leading to the
south-east entrance of the main enclosure, are faint traces of a roughly
rectangular depression. On the site, and in several places incorporated in the
rampart, are a number of boulders of considerable size. About 30m east of the
main enclosure, and connected to the rampart by a slight scarp, is a low knoll
on top of which is an slightly oval cairn of largely turf-covered stones up to
1m high with maximum dimensions of 14.6m by 13.7.
All modern walls, gateposts and field boundaries are excluded from the
scheduling, although the ground beneath all these features is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The monument is a good example of a Romano-British enclosed stone hut circle
settlement with an attached enclosure. Its earthworks survive reasonably well,
preserve considerable detail of the layout of the site, and will facilitate
further study of Romano-British settlement patterns in the area. The nearby
round cairn, despite minor surface disturbance, will contain undisturbed
archaeological deposits within the mound and upon the old landsurface beneath.

Source: Historic England


Darvill, T, MPP Single Monument Class Descriptions - Bowl Barrows (1988), (1988)
RCHME, Westmorland, (1936)
SMR No. 2983, Cumbria SMR, Settlement S of Hartsop Hall, Caudale Beck, (1985)

Source: Historic England

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