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Romano-British farmstead, 500m north of Herpath House

A Scheduled Monument in Kirkwhelpington, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.1682 / 55°10'5"N

Longitude: -2.0302 / 2°1'48"W

OS Eastings: 398171.997706

OS Northings: 585992.683178

OS Grid: NY981859

Mapcode National: GBR G88P.84

Mapcode Global: WHB1F.SCF9

Entry Name: Romano-British farmstead, 500m north of Herpath House

Scheduled Date: 12 January 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011112

English Heritage Legacy ID: 21008

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Kirkwhelpington

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Kirkwhelpington with Kirkharle and Kirkheaton

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes the remains of a farmstead of Romano-British date
situated in a level location with a south facing aspect. The rectangular
farmstead is a maximum of 35m east-west by 45m north-south within a well
preserved ditch up to 8m wide. Within the ditch there is a bank 2.5m wide
which is best preserved on the western side where it is 0.2m high above the
interior and 0.5m above the bottom of the ditch. Outside the ditch on the
south side there is a counter-scarp bank 0.8m above the bottom of the ditch. A
broad entrance 7m wide in the centre of the eastern side is carried across the
ditch on a causeway.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The farmstead north of Ferneyrigg survives well; it is one of a group of
similar settlements in the area and will contribute to any study of the
settlement pattern at this time.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana 4 ser 38' in Rectlinear Settlements of the Roman Period in Northumberland, (1960)
Other
NY 98 NE 22,

Source: Historic England

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