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Fishponds, 450m north-east of Sewingshields

A Scheduled Monument in Haydon, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.0297 / 55°1'46"N

Longitude: -2.2969 / 2°17'48"W

OS Eastings: 381118.067217

OS Northings: 570611.209803

OS Grid: NY811706

Mapcode National: GBR DBD8.JT

Mapcode Global: WH90R.PVF1

Entry Name: Fishponds, 450m north-east of Sewingshields

Scheduled Date: 7 March 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011081

English Heritage Legacy ID: 20982

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Haydon

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Simonburn

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes a set of fishponds of medieval date, situated
immediately to the north of the site of Sewingshields Castle. The fishponds
are of linear form, comprising three rectangular ponds orientated north-south
with each long side abutting onto the next. They are all 33m long, and 10m,
7.5m and 12.5m wide with flat bottoms. The spoil dug from each pond has been
used to form banks on three sides of each; these banks still stand to a
maximum height of 1.5m and are an average of 7.5m wide. The area of the
fishponds is also delimited by a substantial earthen bank 5m across and 1.3m
high placed at a distance of 3m and 13m from the ponds on the west and south
sides respectively. These ponds must have been constructed by the occupants of
Sewingshields Castle which lay to the immediate south; however, the exact
location, form and extent of the castle itself are not precisely known and
it is not included in the scheduling.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A fishpond is an artificially created pool of slow moving freshwater
constructed for the purpose of cultivating, breeding and storing fish to
provide a constant and sustainable supply of food. They may be dug into the
ground, embanked above ground level, or formed by placing a dam across a
narrow valley. Groups of up to twelve ponds variously arranged in a single
line or in a cluster and joined by leats have been recorded. The ponds may be
of the same size or of several different sizes with each pond being stocked
with different species or ages of fish. The size of the pond was related to
function, with large ponds thought to have had a storage capability whilst
smaller, shallower ponds were used for fish cultivation and breeding.
Fishponds were maintained by a water management system which included inlet
and outlet channels carrying water from a river or stream, a series of sluices
set into the bottom of the dam and along the channels and leats, and an
overflow leat which controlled fluctuations in water flow and prevented
flooding.
Buildings for use by fishermen or for the storage of equipment, and islands
possibly used for fishing, wildfowl management or as shallow spawning areas,
are also recorded.
The tradition of constructing and using fishponds in England began during the
medieval period and peaked in the 12th century. They were largely built by the
wealthy sectors of society with monastic institutions and royal residences
often having large and complex fishponds. The difficulties of obtaining fresh
meat in the winter and the value placed on fish in terms of its protein
content and as a status food may have been factors which favoured the
development of fishponds and which made them so valuable. The practice of
constructing fishponds declined after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in
the 16th century although in some areas it continued into the 17th century.
Most fishponds fell out of use during the post-medieval period although some
were re-used as ornamental features in 19th and early 20th century landscape
parks or gardens, or as watercress beds.
Documentary sources provide a wealth of information about the way fishponds
were stocked and managed. The main species of fish kept were eel, tench,
pickerel, bream, perch, and roach. Large quantities of fish could be supplied
at a time. Once a year, probably in the spring, ponds were drained and
cleared.
Fishponds are widely scattered throughout England and extend into Scotland and
Wales. The majority are found in central, eastern and southern parts and in
areas with heavy clay soils. Fewer fishponds are found in coastal areas and
parts of the country rich in natural lakes and streams where other sources of
fresh fish were available. Although 17th century manuals suggest that areas of
waste ground were suitable for fishponds, in practice it appears that most
fishponds were located close to villages, manors or monasteries or within
parks so that a watch could be kept on them to prevent poaching. Although
approximately 2000 examples are recorded nationally, this is thought to be
only a small proportion of those in existence in medieval times. Despite being
relatively common, fishponds are important for their associations with other
classes of medieval monument and in providing evidence of site economy.

The fishponds at Sewingshields survive well and retain significant
archaeological remains. They are of particular importance as well preserved
examples are not common in this area and because of their association with
the medieval manor of Sewingshields.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
NY 87 SW 20,

Source: Historic England

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