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Haltwhistle Burn 1 Roman temporary camp, fortlet and section of the Stanegate

A Scheduled Monument in Haltwhistle, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 54.9892 / 54°59'21"N

Longitude: -2.4481 / 2°26'53"W

OS Eastings: 371426.564065

OS Northings: 566162.974346

OS Grid: NY714661

Mapcode National: GBR CBBR.S9

Mapcode Global: WH90W.CVHK

Entry Name: Haltwhistle Burn 1 Roman temporary camp, fortlet and section of the Stanegate

Scheduled Date: 12 December 1928

Last Amended: 14 July 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1010945

English Heritage Legacy ID: 26014

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Haltwhistle

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Haltwhistle Holy Cross

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes the Roman temporary camp known as Haltwhistle Burn 1,
the Haltwhistle Burn Roman fortlet, and a stretch of the east-west Roman road
known as the Stanegate. These archaeological remains survive as upstanding
features.
The east facing temporary camp occupies the summit and north facing slopes of
a low ridge which extends west towards the Haltwhistle Burn. It commands good
views on all sides and encloses an area of 1ha. The rampart is best preserved
in the south east where it is 0.1m high internally and 0.7m above the base of
the ditch. The ditch is on average 0.2m deep, though a seasonal watercourse
has removed a section on the north side and a hollow way has destroyed part of
the ditch at the south west angle. Excavations across the south east corner in
1907-8 revealed that the ditch was 1.2m wide and 0.6m deep, and that its
centre line was 2.4m outside that of the rampart. Turf had been used for the
foundation of the rampart and for an outer revetment. The rampart was made
from the material upcast from the ditch.
Two gateways still survive; one in the west side and one in the south. That on
the west has been disturbed by surface quarrying and trackways, though its
external defence bank survives to a height of 0.2m. The south gateway is
better preserved, and its outer defence bank survives to a height of 0.4m. An
archaeological trench cut through this gateway showed that the bank of the
external gateway defence was built in the same way as the rampart. The modern
public road to Burnhead and Cawfields crosses the north and east defences at
the points opposite the south and west entrances of the camp, precisely where
the gateways in the north and east sides would be expected to be located.
The fortlet is situated on gently sloping ground before the steep drop into
Haltwhistle Burn to the west, and south of the temporary camp. It guarded the
crossing of the Burn by the Stanegate, and was built around AD 105. It is
therefore earlier in date than Hadrian's Wall itself. Internally the camp
measures about 55m north to south and 65m east to west. Some of the internal
features, including a barrack block and officers quarters, are still visible
as earthworks. Externally, the defences were strengthened by the provision of
an outwork.
The area around the fortlet has been disturbed by watercourses and by the
tracks and tramways associated with the 19th century ironstone mines 400m to
the east. The scarps on the east bank of the Burn have also been extensively
quarried away.
The Stanegate which was the main-east west road survives as a prominent ridge
with side ditches. Its course changes as it nears the fortlet and turns south
west to negotiate the steep and narrow valley of the Haltwhistle Burn which it
descends at a constant gradient. Excluding the ditches, the road measures
about 8m across. After the Stanegate crosses the burn to the SSW of the
fortlet, its course can be clearly observed ascending the west bank of the
Burn before it straightens up on its way through Markham Cottage temporary
camps.
The field boundaries and the surface of the modern road are excluded from the
scheduling, but the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Hadrian's Wall marks one of the frontiers of the Roman Empire. The
international importance of the surviving remains has been recognised through
designation as a World Heritage Site.
The military importance of the Tyne-Solway route across the Pennines was
recognised by the Romans during their early campaigns through northern England
and into Scotland in the second half of the first century AD. At this time a
military road, the Stanegate, was constructed along with a series of forts.
Subsequently the Romans largely withdrew from Scotland and there is evidence
that the Tyne-Solway route was being recognised as a frontier by the start of
the second century AD. This position was consolidated in the early second
century by the construction of a substantial frontier work, Hadrian's Wall,
under the orders of the Emperor Hadrian. Hadrian's successor, Antoninus Pius,
subsequently attempted to establish the boundary further north, between the
Clyde and the Firth of Forth, but by c.AD 160 growing unrest amongst the
native populations of northern Britain and pressures elsewhere in the Empire
caused a retraction back to the Hadrianic line. Hadrian's Wall was then the
frontier of the Roman Empire in Britain until c.AD 400 when the Roman armies
withdrew from Britain.
Stretching over 70 miles from coast to coast, Hadrian's Wall was a continuous
barrier built of stone in the east and, initially, of turf in the west. The
stone wall was originally designed to be ten Roman feet wide and sections of
this width are termed broad wall. A change of plan shortly after construction
began led to a reduction in the width of the Wall to eight Roman feet, such
sections being termed narrow wall. Today, stretches of both wall types
survive, including some sections of narrow wall built on broad wall
foundations. For most of its length a substantial ditch on the northern side
provided additional defence. Where the Wall crossed rivers, bridges were
constructed to carry it across. Construction of the Wall was organised and
executed by legionary soldiers. From the beginning the barrier was planned to
comprise more than just a curtain wall. At regularly spaced intervals of about
a mile along its length lay small walled fortlets known as milecastles. These
were attached to the southern side of the Wall and most had a gateway through
the Wall to the north. Hence they controlled crossing points through the Wall
as well as affording space for a small stable garrison. Between the
milecastles were two equally spaced towers known as turrets. Together the
milecastles and turrets provided bases from which the curtain wall could be
watched and patrolled. Both the turrets and milecastles are thought to have
been higher than the Wall itself to provide suitable observation points. It is
often assumed that a platform existed on the Wall so that troops could
actually patrol along the wall top; it is however far from certain that this
was the case.
At the western end of the Wall a system of towers, small fortlets and palisade
fences extended the frontier system another 30 miles or so down the Cumbrian
coast and helped control shipping moving across the estuary of the Solway
Firth.
As originally planned, and apart from whatever space there was in the
milecastles, provision for the accommodation of garrison troops manning the
Wall was left with the line of forts which already lay along the Stanegate. At
some point a fundamental change of plan took place and forts were constructed
along the line of the Wall itself. There are now known to have been 16 forts
either attached to the Wall or in close association with it. Some overlay
earlier features such as turrets or milecastles. At this stage another linear
element, the vallum, was also added to the defensive system to the south of
the Wall. This was a broad flat-bottomed ditch flanked by a pair of linear
banks. It shadows the course of the Wall for almost all its length, sometimes
lying very close to it but sometimes up to a kilometre away from it. The
vallum's main function was to act as a barrier to restrict access to the Wall
from the south. It also had a function in linking the forts along the Wall
with a method of lateral communication. When the forts were placed along the
wall line no provision was made for a road to link them. This situation was
clearly found impracticable and a metalled track was therefore provided in
places along the vallum between the north mound and the ditch.
Later, after the withdrawal back to the Hadrianic line from the Antonine Wall,
various refurbishments were made throughout the frontier line. At this stage a
new linear feature was added: the `Military Way'. This was a road linking all
elements of the Wall defence, running from fort to fort within the area
bounded by the Wall and the vallum.
Throughout its long history the Wall was not always well maintained. It was
often neglected and sometimes overrun, but it remained in use until the late
fourth century when a weak and divided Roman Empire finally withdrew its
armies from the Wall and Britain.
It now survives in various states of preservation. In places, especially in
the central section, the Stone Wall still remains several courses high and the
attached forts, turrets and milecastles are also clearly identifiable.
Earthwork features such as the ditch, vallum and Military Way also survive
well in places. Elsewhere the Stone Wall has been virtually robbed out and
only its foundations survive beneath the present ground surface. Similarly,
stretches of the earthwork remains, including sections of the Turf Wall, have
been levelled or infilled and now only survive as buried features. Although
some sections of the frontier system no longer survive visibly, sufficient
evidence does exist for its position to be fairly accurately identified
throughout most of its length.
Over 40 temporary camps of many different sizes, some of them still visible as
earthworks, have been recorded in the vicinity of the Wall. These generally
consisted of a rampart of earth quickly thrown up to surround a military
encampment. The rampart may have been surmounted by a timber palisade.
Occupation of these camps was generally short-lived and, while very few of
these examples have been firmly dated, it seems probable that at least some
were work camps used by troops involved in the Wall construction. Others may
have been created as practice camps during military training; temporary camps
were widely used during military campaigning to provide overnight security to
troops on the move.

The Haltwhistle Burn 1 Roman temporary camp, Haltwhistle Burn fortlet and the
stretch of the Stanegate survive well as upstanding earthworks with
accompanying silted up ditches. The rarity of temporary camps, and in
particular examples with upstanding remains, identifies them as nationally
important. The remains will retain significant information on the
development of the frontier systems over time. In addition the fortlet is
unusual, as local circumstances must have required the fortlet to house a
permanent garrison at this point on the Stanegate; it was more usual for the
Stanegate to be guarded by soldiers based in larger forts.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Gibson, J P, Simpson, F G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana' in The Roman Fort on the Stanegate at Haltwhistle Burn, (1909), 213-85
Gibson, J P, Simpson, F G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana' in The Roman Fort on the Stanegate at Haltwhistle Burn, (1909), 213-85

Source: Historic England

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